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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 6 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Adapted Physical Activity Across the Life Span

Paul R. Malinowski, Paul H. Warner, and Wesley J. Wilson,

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Energetics of a World-Tour Female Road Cyclist During a Multistage Race (Tour de France Femmes)

Jose L. Areta, Emily Meehan, Georgie Howe, and Leanne M. Redman

Despite the increased popularity of female elite road cycling, research to inform the fueling requirements of these endurance athletes is lacking. In this case study, we report for the first time the energetics of a female world-tour cyclist competing in the 2023 Tour de France Femmes, an 8-day race of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The 29-year-old athlete presented with oligomenorrhea and low T3 before the race. Total daily energy expenditure assessed with the doubly labeled water technique was 7,572 kcal/day (∼4.3 physical activity levels), among the highest reported in the literature to date for a female. Crank-based mean maximal power was consistent with female world-tour cyclists (5 min, mean 342 W, 4.8 W/kg; 20 min 289 W, 4.1 W/kg). The average daily energy intake measured with the remote food photography method (Stage Days 1–7) was 5,246 kcal and carbohydrate intake was 13.7 g/kg (range 9.7–15.9 g/kg), and 84 g/hr during stages, and an average fat intake of 15% of daily energy intake. An estimated 2,326 kcal/day energy deficit was evidenced in a 2.2 kg decrease in body mass. Notwithstanding the high carbohydrate intake, the athlete was unable to match the energy requirements of the competition. Despite signs of energy deficiency preexisting (oligomenorrhea and low T3), and other further developing during the race (weight loss), performance was in line with that of other world-tour cyclists and a best personal performance was recorded for the last stage. This case study emphasizes the need for further research to inform energy requirements for female athletes’ optimal performance and health.

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Special Olympics: Inclusion Debates and Equity in Sport, 1st Edition

Wonjun Choi and Sophia D. Min

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Physical Education Access in U.S. Public Schools: A Multistate, Multiregion Study

Ben D. Kern, Wesley J. Wilson, Chad Killian, Hans van der Mars, Kelly Simonton, David Woo, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: Our purpose was to gather and evaluate accurate, up-to-date information on physical education (PE) policy implementation across multiple U.S. states and regions. Methods: A U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy questionnaire was developed and completed by 4,845 public-school PE teachers from 25 U.S. states. The U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy assessed PE quantity (days per week and minutes per week), class sizes by grade level, and practices that limit PE access. Descriptive statistics and correlations of PE minutes per week with class size were calculated in aggregate and individually by state. Results: Aggregate PE quantities in elementary, middle school, high school, and for students with disabilities were well below the recommendations (150 min/week elementary and 225 min/week secondary) and varied between states. Average students/class varied by state, and significant positive correlations between weekly PE minutes and students/PE class were observed. Discussion: PE access is limited across the United States, and stronger commitment to PE policy and policy implementation is needed.

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Skimmed, Lactose-Free Milk Ingestion Postexercise: Rehydration Effectiveness and Gastrointestinal Disturbances Versus Water and a Sports Drink in Physically Active People

Luis F. Aragón-Vargas, Julián C. Garzón-Mosquera, and Johnny A. Montoya-Arroyo

Postexercise hydration is fundamental to replace fluid loss from sweat. This study evaluated rehydration and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for each of three beverages: water (W), sports drink (SD), and skimmed, lactose-free milk (SLM) after moderate-intensity cycling in the heat. Sixteen college students completed three exercise sessions each to lose ≈2% of their body mass. They drank 150% of body mass loss of the drink assigned in randomized order; net fluid balance, diuresis, and GI symptoms were measured and followed up for 3 hr after completion of fluid intake. SLM showed higher fluid retention (∼69%) versus W (∼40%; p < .001); SD (∼56%) was not different from SLM or W (p > .05). Net fluid balance was higher for SLM (−0.26 kg) and SD (−0.42 kg) than W (−0.67 kg) after 3 hr (p < .001), resulting from a significantly lower diuresis with SLM. Reported GI disturbances were mild and showed no difference among drinks (p > .05) despite ingestion of W (1,992 ± 425 ml), SD (1,999 ± 429 ml), and SLM (1,993 ± 426 ml) in 90 min. In conclusion, SLM was more effective than W for postexercise rehydration, showing greater fluid retention for the 3-hr follow-up and presenting with low-intensity GI symptoms similar to those with W and SD. These results confirm that SLM is an effective option for hydration after exercise in the heat.

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Psychological Safety in Elite Swimming: Fearful Versus Fearless Coaching Environments

Amelia B. Maughan and Sophia Jowett

Psychological safety has become a popular concept within organisational settings and recently has become a topic of interest within sport. The purpose of this paper was to explore the notion of psychological safety and its impact on athletes’ performance, as well as examine the role coaches played in creating psychologically safe environments. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five former female elite swimmers—all of whom had represented their country in Olympic Games and/or World Championships at least once. Obtained qualitative data were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. The analysis generated three main themes: (a) fearful coaching environment,  (b) fearless coaching environment, and  (c) team environment. All participants experienced both the presence and lack of psychological safety during their athletic careers. According to the participants, their coaches played a fundamental role in creating coaching environments that either invoked or suppressed fear. Swimming teams formed by peers also contributed to experiencing psychological safety (or lack of). This study highlights that an investigation of the content and functions of psychological safety within specific sport contexts can garner insightful knowledge that can have important theoretical and practical ramifications for coaches and coaching in sport.

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Relegated to the Sidelines: A Qualitative Inquiry of Gatekeepers’ Perspectives and Values of Physical Education for Disabled Children

Scott W.T. McNamara, Patrica Craig, Megan Henly, and Jill Gravink

Several institutional aspects within the U.S. public school system impede the delivery of adapted physical education (APE) services to disabled children, including a lack of understanding and prioritization of these services by the special education team and a lack of qualified APE professionals to deliver these services. Thus, we conducted a qualitative inquiry grounded in a critical-ableism perspective to explore special education gatekeepers’ experiences and perspectives of APE. Gatekeepers included parents, physical educators, and school administrators. Using a reflexive thematic analysis, we developed four interrelated themes: (a) disregard, negative, and charity mindsets toward disability; (b) systemic challenges in valuing and prioritizing APE; (c) presence as inclusion: (un)intentional marginalization in physical education; and (d) physical education for my child was a nightmare. These findings illustrate the complexities around the provision of physical education and APE to disabled children.

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Barriers and Facilitators to Including Students With Down Syndrome in Integrated Physical Education: Chilean Physical Educators’ Perspectives

Luiz Gustavo Teixeira Fabricio dos Santos, Fabián Arroyo-Rojas, Sheyla Martinez Rivera, Luis Felipe Castelli Correia de Campos, Lindsey A. Nowland, Wesley J. Wilson, and Justin A. Haegele

The purpose of this study was to explore Chilean physical educators’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to students with Down syndrome experiencing inclusion in integrated physical education. Data were collected from a cohort of 91 physical educators, comprising 50 males and 41 females from various regions in Chile, who responded to an online survey between March 2023 to June 2023. A two-step coding protocol was used to analyze responses. Cumulatively, the respondents identified 350 barriers (3.84 per participant) and 393 facilitators (4.32 per participant), which they perceived to influence feelings of inclusion among students with Down syndrome. Predominantly, factors that centered around teachers themselves were emphasized as both facilitators and barriers, as well as the role of a welcoming environment and supportive peers. This study, the first within the Chilean context, demonstrates that teachers believe that inclusiveness predominantly stems from educators’ initiatives, complemented by the surrounding environment and peer interactions.