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Open access

Paul R. Hibbing, Seth A. Creasy, and Jordan A. Carlson

Physical behaviors (e.g., sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity) often occur in sustained bouts that are punctuated with brief interruptions. To detect and classify these interrupted bouts, researchers commonly use wearable devices and specialized algorithms. Most algorithms examine the data in chronological order, initiating and terminating bouts whenever specific criteria are met. Consequently, the bouts may encapsulate or overlap with later periods that also meet the activation and termination criteria (i.e., alternative bout solutions). In some cases, it is desirable to compare these alternative bout solutions before making a final classification. Thus, comparison-focused algorithms are needed, which can be used in isolation or in concert with their chronology-focused counterparts. In this technical note, we present a comparison-focused algorithm called CRIB (Clustered Recognition of Interrupted Bouts). It uses agglomerative hierarchical clustering to facilitate the comparison of different bout solutions, with the final classification being made in favor of the smallest number of bouts that comply with user-specified criteria (i.e., limits on the number, individual duration, and cumulative duration of interruptions). For demonstration, we use CRIB to assess bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and we include a comparison against results from two established chronology-focused algorithms. Our discussion explores strengths and limitations of CRIB, as well as potential considerations and applications for using it in future studies. An online vignette (https://github.com/paulhibbing/PBpatterns/blob/main/vignettes/CRIB.pdf) is available to assist users with implementing CRIB in R.

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Seomgyun Lee, Kyungun Ryan Kim, and Minsoo Kang

Crises are unavoidable in the sport world, and their relationship with reputation is inextricable. Protecting its reputation is a top priority for a sport organization in a crisis; thus, developing a valid and reliable instrument should be a precedent. In this study, Rasch analysis was applied to evaluate a 10-item Organizational Reputation Scale (ORP), extensively used in general and sport communication research, but whose development was made under classical test theory. This traditional method has several limitations (i.e., item and sample dependencies, nonaddictive features of ordinal data, and item category functioning). The main purposes of the study were to calibrate ORP items and evaluate their category functions. A total of 373 sport fans responded to the ORP on a 5-point Likert scale. Several analytic steps were applied to provide psychometric properties of each item in the ORP. The findings provided evidence that supports the unidimensional structure of the ORP with eight items. All items and a person’s ability exhibited satisfactory levels of variability along the continuum. The 5-category rating scale in Likert format functioned properly. As a better alternative to classical test theory, Rasch analysis provided information about the practicality of each ORP item in measuring individuals’ perceptual level of an organization’s reputation within a sport setting. Our study proposed some insights for enhancing each item’s quality and encouraging future scholars to make informed decisions when using the ORP.

Open access

John Bellettiere, Supun Nakandala, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler, Paul R. Hibbing, Genevieve N. Healy, David W. Dunstan, Neville Owen, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Dori E. Rosenberg, Jingjing Zou, Jordan A. Carlson, Chongzhi Di, Lindsay W. Dillon, Marta M. Jankowska, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Nicola D. Ridgers, Rong Zablocki, Arun Kumar, and Loki Natarajan

Background: Hip-worn accelerometers are commonly used, but data processed using the 100 counts per minute cut point do not accurately measure sitting patterns. We developed and validated a model to accurately classify sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometer data from a wide age range of older adults. Methods: Deep learning models were trained with 30-Hz triaxial hip-worn accelerometer data as inputs and activPAL sitting/nonsitting events as ground truth. Data from 981 adults aged 35–99 years from cohorts in two continents were used to train the model, which we call CHAP-Adult (Convolutional Neural Network Hip Accelerometer Posture-Adult). Validation was conducted among 419 randomly selected adults not included in model training. Results: Mean errors (activPAL − CHAP-Adult) and 95% limits of agreement were: sedentary time −10.5 (−63.0, 42.0) min/day, breaks in sedentary time 1.9 (−9.2, 12.9) breaks/day, mean bout duration −0.6 (−4.0, 2.7) min, usual bout duration −1.4 (−8.3, 5.4) min, alpha .00 (−.04, .04), and time in ≥30-min bouts −15.1 (−84.3, 54.1) min/day. Respective mean (and absolute) percent errors were: −2.0% (4.0%), −4.7% (12.2%), 4.1% (11.6%), −4.4% (9.6%), 0.0% (1.4%), and 5.4% (9.6%). Pearson’s correlations were: .96, .92, .86, .92, .78, and .96. Error was generally consistent across age, gender, and body mass index groups with the largest deviations observed for those with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Conclusions: Overall, these strong validation results indicate CHAP-Adult represents a significant advancement in the ambulatory measurement of sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometers. Pending external validation, it could be widely applied to data from around the world to extend understanding of the epidemiology and health consequences of sitting.

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Shelby N. Anderson

Sport psychology scholars have long called for the field to take intersectional approaches to research and applied practice. Missing from this call is the study of intersectionality in the classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this practice paper is to provide a resource for sport psychology practitioners to take an intersectional approach in their teaching. First, the author provides a brief overview of intersectional theory and approaches to using anti-oppressive practices in the classroom. The author then reflects on their experience utilizing an intersectional lens as a neophyte instructor. Finally, the author discusses lessons learned from this teaching experience. This practice paper serves as a resource for sport psychology scholars and practitioners to integrate the study of intersectionality in their roles. While this paper is written for the higher education classroom, all readers will gain knowledge on intersectional theory and how it can be integrated in their scholarship or applied practice.

Open access

Lori A. Gano-Overway

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Anne R. Lindsay, Courtney Coughenour, Layne Case, Jacob Bevell, Victoria Fryer, and Ali Brian

The purpose of this study was to examine state-level early learning standards specific to physical development, including fundamental motor skills and gross motor development for preschool-aged children in the United States. All standards related to motor development and specific to children ages 3–5 years were extracted from publicly available online documents from all 50 states. Upon initial review, 961 standards were extracted from all documents. Through aggregation of similar skills and elimination of duplicates across states, 48 unique skills were identified. Frequencies and proportions of states that included each skill in their standards were calculated. Descriptive results indicate that none of the 48 skills were included as a standard across all 50 states. Only three skills, running, jumping, and throwing a ball overhand were a standard in over 75% of states. Most of the skills were standards in less than 50% of states. Trends from these data show that a wide range of motor skills are included within preschool physical development standards within the United States, with large variability among states. Considering this variability, and currently low levels of motor competence among young children, additional evaluation, and future creation of best practice preschool physical development standards are warranted.