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Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.

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Julia Hussien and Diane Ste-Marie

The focus of attention literature has shown robust findings for the benefits of providing statements that focus on the movement effect or outcome (external focus of attention [EFOA]) as opposed to focusing on the movement kinematics (internal focus of attention). Observational studies, however, have revealed that physiotherapists use fewer EFOA statements than internal focus of attention statements in their practice. Most evidence in this regard has been from non-Canadian physiotherapists working in stroke rehabilitation; consequently, we sought to examine whether Canadian physiotherapists working with various rehabilitation populations also use EFOA statements to a lesser extent than internal focus of attention statements. The “Therapists’ Perceptions of Motor Learning Principles Questionnaire (TPMLPQ)” was thus designed and data from 121 Canadian physiotherapists showed low relative frequencies of EFOA use (31.3% ± 14%) averaged across six hypothetical scenarios. A higher EFOA was reported, however, for two of the six scenarios: a functional reaching scenario (55.5% ± 37.0%) and pelvic floor task (65.6% ±32.9%). This data suggest that the findings of EFOA benefits have not been widely translated into Canadian physiotherapy settings; furthermore, the findings of the scenario-dependency warrant future investigation into factors, such as task characteristics, that may influence physiotherapists’ FOA use.

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Claire Marie Jie Lin Goh, Nan Xin Wang, Andre Matthias Müller, Rowena Yap, Sarah Edney, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

Background: Smartphones and wrist-worn activity trackers are increasingly popular for step counting purposes and physical activity promotion. Although trackers from popular brands have frequently been validated, the accuracy of low-cost devices under free-living conditions has not been adequately determined. Objective: To investigate the criterion validity of smartphones and low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers under free-living conditions. Methods: Participants wore a waist-worn Yamax pedometer and seven different low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers continuously over 3 days, and an activity log was completed at the end of each day. At the end of the study, the number of step counts reflected on the participants’ smartphone for each of the 3 days was also recorded. To establish criterion validity, step counts from smartphones and activity trackers were compared with the pedometers using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, mean absolute percentage error, and intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Five of the seven activity trackers underestimated step counts and the remaining two and the smartphones overestimated step counts. Criterion validity was consistently higher for the activity trackers (r = .78–.92; mean absolute percentage error 14.5%–36.1%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .51–.91) than the smartphone (r = .37; mean absolute percentage error 55.7%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .36). Stratified analysis showed better validity of smartphones among female than for male participants. Phone wearing location also affected accuracy. Conclusions: Low-cost trackers demonstrated high accuracy in recording step counts and can be considered with confidence for research purposes or large-scale health promotion programs. The accuracy of using a smartphone for measuring step counts was substantially lower. Factors such as phone wear location and gender should also be considered when using smartphones to track step counts.

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Kylie Hesketh, Katherine Downing, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, and Lisa M. Barnett

Background: Understanding how or whether sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children is important considering that children spend a lot of time sedentary. The aim of this study was to examine whether sedentary behavior predicts motor competence in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study with a total of 372 children aged 3.5 years at baseline and 5 years at follow-up was conducted. Objectively measured activity patterns (i.e., using accelerometers) were conducted in a subsample with 188 children. Sedentary behavior was assessed both objectively and subjectively (parent-reported screen time). Locomotor and object control skill scores were determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition. A multivariable analysis was executed adjusting for potential confounders (such as age, sex, time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, monitor wear time, body mass index z scores, and maternal education). Results: Sedentary behavior at either time point was not significantly associated with either locomotor or object control skills after adjusting for potential confounders. Discussion: Our results did not support the assumption that sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children. Regardless, given the lack of consistency in the evidence base, we recommend to parents, educators, and health professionals that sedentary activities should be kept within government recommendations due to potential negative effects on child development.

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Janet Hauck and Isabella Felzer-Kim

Background: This study investigated the effect of an adapted physical activity (APA) course on knowledge and perceptions of preservice trainees regarding physical activity (PA) and autism spectrum disorder in 3 areas: knowledge/perspectives, importance and ease of improving developmental domains, and importance and ease of improving motor skills. Methods: Four hundred upper-level undergraduate students were recruited to participate in this survey-based study (251 APA students and 149 non-APA students participated). Survey data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Participants estimated that the moderate to vigorous PA recommendations are 39.34 minutes per day, that 46.65% of moderate to vigorous PA occurs during school, and that 61.03% of children have motor difficulties. Participants perceived activities of daily living, sleep habits, and heart health as the easiest domains to improve, and problem behaviors, social skills, and self-esteem as the most difficult domains to improve. Knowledge/perspectives regarding autism spectrum disorder and PA were different by APA exposure (F 12,324 = 3.11, P < .001). Differences included self-efficacy in providing PA advice, knowledge of PA guidelines, and willingness to provide motor assessment referrals. Students differed by APA exposure in the importance of developmental domains (F 8,381 = 4.37, P < .001) but not ease of improving those domains. Conclusion: Results suggest that APA education and contact with children with disabilities improves self-efficacy, perspectives, and knowledge of PA and motor concerns in children with autism spectrum disorder.

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Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elahe Banitalebi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Rahimi, Ismail Laher, and Kade Davison

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65–80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.

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Tiereny McGuire, Kirstie Devin, Victoria Patricks, Benjamin Griffiths, Craig Speirs, and Malcolm Granat

Introduction: The COVID-19 lockdown introduced restrictions to free-living activities. Changes to these activities can be accurately quantified using combined measurement. Using activPAL3 and self-reports to collect activity data, the study aimed to quantify changes that occurred in physical activity and sedentary behavior between prelockdown and lockdown. The study also sought to determine changes in indoor and outdoor stepping. Methods: Using activPAL3, four participants recorded physical activity data prelockdown and during lockdown restrictions (February–June 2020). Single events (sitting, standing, stepping, lying) were recorded and analyzed by the CREA algorithm using an event-based approach. The analysis focused on step count, sedentary time, and lying (in bed) time; median and interquartile range were calculated. Daily steps classified as taking place indoors and outdoors were calculated separately. Results: 33 prelockdown and 92 in-lockdown days of valid data were captured. Median daily step count across all participants reduced by 14.8% (from 5,828 prelockdown to 4,963 in-lockdown), while sedentary and lying time increased by 4% and 8%, respectively (sedentary: 9.98–10.30 hr; lying: 9.33–10.05 hr). Individual variations were observed in hours spent sedentary (001: 8.44–8.66, 002: 7.41–8.66, 003: 11.97–10.59, 004: 6.29–7.94, and lying (001: 9.69–9.49, 002: 11.46–11.66, 003: 7.63–9.34, 004: 9.7–11.12) pre- and in-lockdown. Discrepancies in self-report versus algorithm classification of indoor/outdoor stepping were observed for three participants. Conclusion: The study quantitively showed lockdown restrictions negatively impacted physical activity and sedentary behavior; two variables closely linked to health outcomes. This has important implications for public health policies to help develop targeted interventions and mandates that encourage additional physical activity and lower sedentary behavior.

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David X. Marquez, Michelle A. Jaldin, Miguel Negrete, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, and Crystal M. Glover

Physical activity (PA) has been associated with a multitude of beneficial mental and physical outcomes. It is well documented, however, that there are health disparities and inequities for segments of the population, especially as related to PA. Engagement of traditionally minoritized populations into research is essential for justice in health. We discuss a community engagement model that can be used for recruiting and retaining traditionally minoritized populations into PA research, and then we go into three major ethnic/racial groups in the United States: Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Background information of each group, cultural values that play a role in health for each of the groups, and research demonstrating how culture plays a role in the formation and implementation of PA interventions in these groups is presented.