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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Olivia Coolman, Amberly Keyes, Megan Ready, Jaedyn Shelton, Ethan Willett, and Brian C. Rider

Background: Given the popularity of thigh-worn accelerometers, it is important to understand their reliability and validity. Purpose: Our study evaluated laboratory validity and free-living intermonitor reliability of the Fibion monitor and free-living intermonitor reliability of the activPAL monitor. Free-living comparability of the Fibion and activPAL monitors was also assessed. Methods: Nineteen adult participants wore Fibion monitors on both thighs while performing 11 activities in a laboratory setting. Then, participants wore Fibion and activPAL monitors on both thighs for 3 days during waking hours. Accuracy of the Fibion monitor was determined for recognizing lying/sitting, standing, slow walking, fast walking, jogging, and cycling. For the 3-day free-living wear, outputs from the Fibion monitors were compared, with similar analyses conducted for the activPAL monitors. Finally, free-living comparability of the Fibion and activPAL monitors was determined for nonwear, sitting, standing, stepping, and cycling. Results: The Fibion monitor had an overall accuracy of 85%–89%, with high accuracy (94%–100%) for detecting prone and supine lying, sitting, and standing but some misclassification among ambulatory activities and for left-/right-side lying with standing. Intermonitor reliability was similar for the Fibion and activPAL monitors, with best reliability for sitting but poorer reliability for activities performed least often (e.g., cycling). The Fibion and activPAL monitors were not equivalent for most tested metrics. Conclusion: The Fibion monitor appears suitable for assessment of sedentary and nonsedentary waking postures, and the Fibion and activPAL monitors have comparable intermonitor reliability. However, studies using thigh-worn monitors should use the same monitor brand worn on the same leg to optimize reliability.

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Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, Anuj Bhatia, Andrew Lim, and Mandeep Singh

Individuals suffering from neuropathic pain commonly report issues associated with sleep. To measure sleep in this population, researchers have used actigraphy. Historically, actigraphy data have been analyzed in the form of counts; however, due to the proprietary nature, many opt to quantify data in its raw form. Various processing techniques exist to accomplish this; however, it remains unclear how they compare to one another. This study sought to compare sleep measures derived using the GGIR R package versus the GENEActiv (GA) R Markdown tool in a neuropathic pain population. It was hypothesized that the processing techniques would yield significantly different sleep outcomes. One hundred and twelve individuals (mean age = 52.72 ± 13.01 years; 60 M) with neuropathic pain in their back and/or lower limbs were included. While simultaneously undergoing spinal cord stimulation, actigraphy devices were worn on the wrist for a minimum of 7 days (GA; 50 Hz). Upon completing the protocol, sleep outcome measures were calculated using (a) the GGIR R package and (b) the GA R Markdown tool. To compare these algorithms, paired-samples t tests and Bland–Altman plots were used to compare the total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, sleep onset time, and rise times. According to the paired-samples t test, the GA R Markdown yielded lower total sleep time and sleep efficiency and a greater wake after sleep onset, compared with the GGIR package. Furthermore, later sleep onset times and earlier rise times were reported by the GGIR package compared with the GA R Markdown.

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Michael J. Rose, Michael P. LaValley, S. Reza Jafarzadeh, Kerry E. Costello, Nirali Shah, Soyoung Lee, Belinda Borrelli, Stephen P. Messier, Tuhina Neogi, and Deepak Kumar

Objective: To examine changes in physical activity, sleep, pain, and mood in people with knee osteoarthritis during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by leveraging an ongoing randomized clinical trial. Methods: Participants enrolled in a 12-month parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial (NCT03064139) interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic wore an activity monitor (Fitbit Charge 3) and filled out custom weekly surveys rating knee pain, mood, and sleep as part of the study. Data from 30 weeks of the parent study were used for this analysis. Daily step count and sleep duration were extracted from activity monitor data, and participants self-reported knee pain, positive mood, and negative mood via surveys. Metrics were averaged within each participant and then across all participants for prepandemic, stay-at-home, and reopening periods, reflecting the phased reopening in the state of Massachusetts. Results: Data from 28 participants showed small changes with inconclusive clinical significance during the stay-at-home and reopening periods compared with prepandemic for all outcomes. Summary statistics suggested substantial variability across participants with some participants showing persistent declines in physical activity during the observation period. Conclusion: Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, sleep, pain, and mood were variable across individuals with osteoarthritis. Specific reasons for this variability could not be determined. Identifying factors that could affect individuals with knee osteoarthritis who may exhibit reduced physical activity and/or worse symptoms during major lifestyle changes (such as the ongoing pandemic) is important for providing targeted health-care services and management advice toward those that could benefit from it the most.

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Sarah Taylor, Bradley Fawver, Joseph L. Thomas, A. Mark Williams, and Keith R. Lohse

Contextual interference is an established phenomenon in learning research; random practice schedules are associated with poorer performance, but superior learning, compared with blocked practice schedules. We present a secondary analysis of N = 84 healthy young adults, replicating the contextual interference effect in a time estimation task. We used the determinant of a correlation matrix to measure the amount of order in participant responses. We calculated this determinant in different phase spaces: trial space, the determinant of the previous five trials (lagged constant error 0–4); and target space, the determinant of the previous five trials of the same target. In trial space, there was no significant difference between groups (p = .98) and no Group × Lag interaction (p = .54), although there was an effect of Lag (p < .01). In target space, there were effects of Group (p = .02), Lag (p < .01), and a Group × Lag interaction (p = .03). Ultimately, randomly scheduled practice was associated with adaptive corrections but positive correlations between errors from trial to trial (e.g., overshoots followed by smaller overshoots). Blocked practice was associated with more adaptive corrections but uncorrelated responses. Our findings suggest that random practice leads to the retrieval and updating of the target from memory, facilitating long-term retention and transfer.

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Brian Dauenhauer, Taemin Ha, Collin Webster, Heather Erwin, Erin Centeio, Jillian Papa, and Charlene Burgeson

Background: Principals are key to the promotion of physical activity (PA) in schools. The purpose of this study was to understand how school principals’ PA values, behaviors, and individual and school characteristics were associated with the presence of an active school. Methods: A representative sample of 1019 school principals in the United States was surveyed. Survey items addressed principals’ values and behaviors associated with PA, individual and school demographic factors, such as years of experience and school level, and a single item asking whether principals perceived their school to be an active school (ie, provides students with opportunities to be physically active before, during, and after the school day). Significant variables from a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis were added to a hierarchical logistic regression model to assess the predictive properties of principal values and behaviors as they relate to the presence of an active school. Results: Approximately half of principals (47%) reported having an active school. The model significantly predicted the presence of an active school but accounted for only 6.6% of the total variance. Although values toward PA and more frequent personal PA behaviors were associated with the presence of an active school within the cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis, neither variable emerged as a significant predictor in the regression model. Conclusions: Principals’ personal PA values and behaviors contribute to the presence of an active school, but other variables, including years of experience and school contextual factors, are more powerful predictors.

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M. Melissa Gross, Kairos Marquardt, Rebecca E. Hasson, Michael Vesia, Anthony R. King, and Peter F. Bodary

Pedagogical strategies continue to improve and evolve with the primary purpose of preparing learners for life and career challenges. The focus on discipline-specific content and individual assessment has dominated higher education practice, including those in kinesiology. Although there is a clear vision to enhance diversity, equity, and inclusion in kinesiology curricula, we also need to improve important foundational skills (e.g., quantitative literacy, information literacy, teamwork skills) that our students need to succeed in our programs and beyond. Our narrative review highlights how we tackled these two challenges in an intentional redesign of our foundational kinesiology course. In addition, we outline how we integrated our siloed content and moved to coinstruction of a large, team-based-learning class that employs a diverse set of learning assessments and is supported by near-peer learning assistants.

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Jared Russell, Matt Beth, Danielle Wadsworth, Stephanie George, Wendy Wheeler, and Harald Barkhoff

Kinesiology administrators make a myriad of strategic decisions throughout their time in leadership. Effective leadership, particularly inclusive excellence leadership, is highlighted by the ability of an individual to utilize a diversity of constituent viewpoints, perspectives, and “voices” to guide their respective decision-making processes. This manuscript includes two students’ stories, as well as main points of discussion by American Kinesiology Association Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion workshop leaders. These perspectives provide not only foundational background information, including student identities, but also strategic actions that are necessary to develop all-inclusive and individualized programming that can successfully overcome systemic barriers. The main identified themes are (a) ease of access to accommodations, (b) a culture of inclusivity, (c) advocating, (d) establishing trusting relationships, (e) welcoming of Indigenous perspectives, and (f) flexible practices and community support.

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Kayla Baker, Melissa Bopp, Sean M. Bulger, YuChun Chen, Michele L. Duffey, Brian Myers, Dana K. Voelker, and Kaylee F. Woodard

The COVID-19 pandemic proved to be an unprecedented disruptor on college and university campuses as stakeholders at all organizational levels were challenged to consider new approaches to teaching and learning using online course modalities with very limited preparation time and faculty support. Using a case study approach, this paper reviews valuable lessons learned through the experience, particularly regarding shifts in course delivery to include online and hybrid modalities on a widespread scale. Specifically, the authors reviewed the processes, outcomes, and student perceptions associated with online and hybrid course delivery in various kinesiology courses at three different higher education institutions. The paper also offers useful perspectives for kinesiology program administrators and faculty who are contemplating the continued application of online and hybrid course formats in greater capacity postpandemic.