Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13,230 items for :

  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

Free access

Examining Ableism Through the Physical Activity Experiences of Blind and Visually Impaired Women

Lindsey E. Ball and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: This study examined how ableism influences blind and visually impaired women’s experiences accessing and engaging in exercise, physical activity, and sport. Methods: Ten women between the ages of 27 and 45 years completed a one-on-one audio-recorded virtual interview where they reflected on the meaningfulness of their exercise, physical activity, and/or sport experiences, as well as described any experiences related to direct, indirect, systemic, or internalized ableism within or when attempting to access those physical activity experiences. The interview transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The analysis resulted in the construction of 2 themes that depicted the participants’ experiences: (1) “It’s exhausting”: navigating inaccessibility and (2) “You feel like a fish out of water”: internalized ableism. Discussion: The themes highlight the participants’ experiences which were largely focused on being forced to navigate inaccessible environments which resulted in exhaustion and expressions of internalized ableism. These findings provide insight into what makes and does not make a physical activity space accessible and welcoming for blind and visually impaired adults.

Restricted access

The Inducers of an Elite Male Table Tennis Player’s Emotional Experience Throughout His Career: A Single Case Study Based on the Critical-Incident Method

Oriane Petiot, Gilles Kermarrec, Jérôme Visioli, and Guillaume Martin

Despite a growing interest in emotions in sport psychology, little has been written about the contextual elements triggering athletes’ emotional experience. This single case study aimed to analyze the inducers of an elite table tennis player’s emotional experience throughout his career. He was ranked among the 15 best players in the world, and his career spanned more than 20 years. Inspired by the critical-incident method, we conducted a lengthy interview with the player, during which he related the most significant moments of his career. The categorization of the 96 critical incidents collected highlighted four inducers of positive emotions and five inducers of negative emotions, emerging over five periods (exponential progression, first difficulties, major difficulties, second career, and end of career). These findings contribute to the development of an innovative single-case-study design, allowing an understanding of the contextual origin of athletes’ emotions over the long term. Finally, highlights are discussed and recommendations for the practice of sport psychology are formulated.

Free access

Barriers to Participation in Organized Physical Activity Among LGBTQ+ Youth: Differences by Sexual, Gender, and Racial Identities

Benjamin Parchem, Jonathan Poquiz, Ryan L. Rahm-Knigge, Elizabeth Panetta, Ryan J. Watson, and G. Nic Rider

Background: LGBTQ+ youth engage in organized physical activity to a lesser degree than their cisgender and heterosexual counterparts. Existing literature on this organized physical activity disparity is limited, particularly with LGBTQ+ youth samples. The current analysis examined individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity for LGBTQ+ youth across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Methods: A subsample of LGBTQ+ students (N = 4566) from the 2021 Dane County Youth Assessment completed items that measured barriers to organized physical activity and systemic factors (ie, family money problems and bias-based bullying) associated with access to organized physical activity. Latent class analysis discerned patterns of individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity. Latent class regression modeling tested gender, sexual, and racial identities as correlates of latent class membership. Results: More than half of the sample did not participate in organized physical activity. Four profiles of LGBTQ+ youth were discerned based on self-reported barriers: high barrier (8%), bullied (16%), low interest or perceived skills (28%), and low barrier (48%). The low-barrier class included a greater proportion of LGBTQ+ youth who identified as White, or cisgender, or heterosexual as well as youth self-reporting higher organized physical activity. The high-barrier and bullied classes comprised more marginalized gender and sexual identities. Conclusions: LGBTQ+ youth experience individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity, including inequitable access and bullying, and barriers are uniquely experienced across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Physical activity promotion among LGBTQ+ youth would be strengthened by policies that address inequitable access to opportunities and bias-based bullying.

Restricted access

The Role of Physical Literacy in the Association Between Weather and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis With 951 Children

Johannes Carl, Paulina S. Melby, Mette L. Kurtzhals, Glen Nielsen, Peter Bentsen, and Peter Elsborg

Background: Numerous studies showed an effect of weather on physical activity (PA) levels in children. However, no study has yet examined the relevance of personal factors in this relationship. Therefore, this study analyzes (1) whether there are systematic interindividual differences in the extent to which weather affects the PA behavior and (2) whether physical literacy (PL) moderates the weather–PA association in children. Methods: A total of 951 children in 12 Danish schools (age 9.76 [1.59] y; 54.3% girls) completed objective PA assessments via accelerometry (moderate to vigorous PA, light PA, and sedentary behavior). Local weather data (precipitation, wind speed, temperature, and sunshine duration) were provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute. Participants’ PL was measured employing the Danish version of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy-2. The 4116 accelerometer days underwent longitudinal multilevel analyses while considering their nesting into pupils and school classes (n = 51). Results: Fluctuations in all PA indicators were significantly explained by variations in weather conditions, especially precipitation (P ≤ .035). Significant interindividual differences were found for 9 of 12 analytical dimensions, suggesting that weather changes influence PA behavior differently across individuals (especially moderate to vigorous PA, χ2[4] ≥ 11.5, P ≤ .021). However, PL moderated the relationship between weather and PA in only 2 of the 48 analytical constellations. Conclusions: Despite the varying impact of weather on PA across individuals, the present study favors a main effect model in which weather and PL exert independent effects on children’s PA. The insufficient support for PL as a moderating factor calls for future studies to test alternative mechanisms in the weather–PA association.

Free access

Walking Activity and Physical Function Among Mexican American Older Adults Over 9 Years of Follow Up

Nicholas Tahmassi and Soham Al Snih

Background: Walking activity has been associated with reduction in the development of chronic disease, cognitive and physical function impairment, disability, and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between walking activity and physical function over 9 years of follow-up among Mexican Americans aged 78 years and older. Methods: Participants (N = 998) were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (2007–2016). Measures included walking activity duration and frequency, socio-demographics, body mass index, medical conditions, pain, depressive symptoms, limitation in activities of daily living, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Low physical function was defined as scoring <7 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. At baseline, participants were grouped into nonwalkers (n = 653), walked <150 minutes/week (n = 144), and walked 150 minutes/week or more (n = 201). A Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% CI of low physical performance as a function of walking activity status. Results: Compared with nonwalkers, participants walking < 150 minutes/week had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.51–0.86) of low physical function over time, after controlling for all covariates, as did those walking ≥ 150 minutes/week (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.41–0.71). Conclusions: Mexican American older adults who engage in any walking activity are at reduced risk of low physical function, even those with disability. Interventions at the individual and community level are recommended to reduce physical function impairment, even in those with preexisting medical conditions or disability.

Free access

Accelerometer-Based Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Among Samoan Adults

Nicola L. Hawley, Parmida Zarei, Scott E. Crouter, Mayur M. Desai, Alysa Pomer, Anna C. Rivara, Take Naseri, Muagututia Sefuiva Reupena, Satupaitea Viali, Rachel L. Duckham, and Stephen T. McGarvey

Background: The prevalence of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease in Samoa is among the highest globally. While physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity-related disease, little is known about physical activity levels among adult Samoans. Using wrist-worn accelerometer-based devices, this study aimed to characterize physical activity among Samoan adults. Methods: Samoan adults (n = 385; 55% female, mean [SD] age 52 [10] y) wore Actigraph GT3X+ devices for 7 to 10 days. General linear models were used to examine mean daily minutes of sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity by various participant characteristics. Results: Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity did not differ statistically between men (88 [5] min; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80–97) and women (78 [4] min; 95% CI, 70–86; P = .08). Women, however, spent more time than men in light physical activity: 380 (7) minutes (95% CI, 367–393) versus 344 (7) minutes (95% CI, 329–358; P < .001). While there were no differences in physical activity by census region, education, or occupation among women, men in urban areas spent significantly less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity than those in peri-urban and rural areas (P = .015). Women with class II/III obesity spent more time in sedentary activities than those with healthy weight or overweight/class I obesity (P = .048). Conclusions: This study characterizes physical activity among Samoan adults and highlights variation by sex, urbanicity, and weight status. In providing initial device-measured estimates of physical activity in Samoa, this analysis establishes a baseline from which the success of future attempts to intervene on physical activity may be assessed.

Free access

Celebrating 10 Years of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Pedro C. Hallal

Restricted access

Do Parental Beliefs and Support Predict the Motor Competence of Youth With Visual Impairments?

Alexandra Stribing, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Parents tend to play a vital role in their child’s motor competence for youth with visual impairments. However, little research has explored parental mindsets and support (e.g., transportation) surrounding their child’s motor skills and how it may predict motor competence. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parents’ mindset items along with parental support may predict their children’s actual motor competence. Parents of youth with visual impairments (N = 92; mothers = 69.5%, fathers = 18.1%; M age = 42.91 years, SD = 8.08 years) completed the modified parents’ perception questionnaire. Youth with visual impairments ages 9–19 years (N = 95; M age = 153.35 months, SD = 27.58 months, girls = 37.1%, boys = 53.3%, 9.6% missing) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-third edition. Results from a backward linear regression convey parental beliefs (i.e., growth mindsets) and support variables (e.g., providing transportation) significantly predicted their child’s actual motor competence, F(6, 84) = 9.77, p < .001, adj. R 2 = .37. Results could inform parents on their importance toward supporting and believing in developing their child’s motor competence.

Restricted access

Measurement Reactivity in Ecological Momentary Assessment Studies of Movement-Related Behaviors

Jaclyn P. Maher, Danielle Arigo, Kiri Baga, Gabrielle M. Salvatore, Kristen Pasko, Brynn L. Hudgins, and Laura M. König

Measurement reactivity has implications for behavioral science, as it is crucial to determine whether changes in constructs of interest represent true change or are an artifact of assessment. This study investigated whether measurement reactivity occurs for movement-related behaviors, motivational antecedents of behavior, and associations between them. Data from ecological momentary assessment studies of older adults (n = 195) and women in midlife (n = 75) lasting 8–10 days with 5–6 prompts/day and ambulatory monitoring of movement were used for this secondary data analysis. To examine potential drop-off patterns indicative of measurement reactivity, multilevel models tested whether behavior, antecedents, and associations changed after the first or first 2 prompts compared with remaining prompts and the first, first 2, or first 3 days compared with remaining days. Older adults’ sedentary behavior was lower, and time spent upright and intentions and self-efficacy to stand/move were higher on the first 2 and first 3 days compared with remaining days. Associations between intentions and self-efficacy and subsequent sedentary behavior were weaker earlier in the study compared to later. For women in midlife, light physical activity was higher at the first and first 2 prompts compared with remaining prompts, and physical activity motivation was higher across all prompts and days tested. There was a stronger association between intended and observed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on the first 2 days compared with remaining days. Measurement reactivity appeared as expected for movement-related behaviors and motivational antecedents, though changes in associations between these constructs are likely do not reflect measurement reactivity.