Sugalya Amatachaya, Pakwipa Chokphukiao, Puttipong Poncumhak, Roongnapa Intaruk, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, and Pipatana Amatachaya
Adequate body composition is essential for health, function, and independence in older adults. However, standard body composition assessments require complex and costly modalities, limiting their use for early detection of body composition changes and periodic follow-up. This study explored the ability of three practical measures—handgrip strength, five times sit-to-stand test, and upper limb loading during seated push-up test (ULL-SPUT)—to determine body composition in 109 older adults with and without sarcopenia. Participants (average age 76 years) were cross-sectionally measured for outcomes of the study. The ULL-SPUT and handgrip strength, but not the five times sit-to-stand test, significantly correlated with body composition (rs, r = .297–.827, p < .01). The ULL-SPUT, in combination with demographic data, could determine body composition up to 82%. Therefore, the ULL-SPUT may be a practical preliminary measure to identify older adults for whom standard body composition assessments and follow-up would prove timely and beneficial.
Maria Kasanen, Arto Laukkanen, Donna Niemistö, Jimi Kotkajuuri, Nanne-Mari Luukkainen, and Arja Sääkslahti
This study was conducted to determine how total fundamental movement skill (FMS) score and, separately, locomotor skill (LMS), and object control skill scores in children 3–8 years old predicted their specific-intensity physical activity 3 years later. Overall, 441 Finnish children (51.7% female, baseline mean age of 5.6 years) participated in the study. Total FMS, LMS, and object control skill scores were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, third edition. The time spent engaged in physical activity of different intensities (light, moderate, vigorous, moderate-to-vigorous, light-to-vigorous, and sedentary behavior) was determined using accelerometers. A two-level regression model was used in the analysis, considering potential covariates and interactions. The results showed that moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predicted by the total FMS score (β = 0.177 to 0.203, p = .001–.003) and the LMS score (β = 0.140 to 0.164, p = .004–.014), but not the object control skill score. Moreover, the LMS score inversely predicted sedentary behavior (β = −0.116, p = .042). In conclusion, higher FMS and, specifically, LMS scores seem to predict more engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and less sedentary behavior over time. However, most of the variance in physical activity remains unexplained.
Steve Amireault and Mary Katherine Huffman
The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which motivational regulations influence physical activity behavior through role identity among people 55 years or older. Participants (N = 409; Mage = 66.29 years [SD = 7.06]) completed online questionnaires to measure motivational regulations, role identity, and the frequency of physical activity in a typical week and in the past month. Mediation analysis using ordinary least squares path analysis revealed that autonomous forms of motivational regulation (positively) and controlled forms of motivational regulation (negatively) influenced role identity, which then positively influenced physical activity behavior. Bootstrap confidence intervals (95%) for the indirect effects (a × b) based on 5,000 bootstrap samples were entirely above or below zero. These findings point to future experimental evaluations of interventions aiming at both increasing and decreasing autonomous and controlled motivational regulations, respectively, to promote physical activity behavior through role identity.
Jonathan M. Casper, Amy Chan Hyung Kim, and Jason N. Bocarro
Pickleball offers sociopsychological and physical activity benefits for older adults but lacks racial diversity. The purpose of this study was to identify constraints to pickleball participation with Black older adults (65+ years) as well as examine differences based on physical activity and sex. A Qualtrics panel included Black older adults (N = 292) who have heard of pickleball and are physically able to play but have not played. Results found Knowledge, Accessibility, Interpersonal, and Interest were the most salient constraints overall. Multivariate analysis of variance found that those who report low physical activity had significantly higher Interpersonal, Psychological, Costs, and Perceived Racism constraints. Additionally, females report significantly higher Knowledge, Psychological, and Cost constraints compared to males. The results further the theoretical application of constraints to physical activity research and provide insights into practitioner implications to grow the sport of pickleball for Black older adults.
Akilah R. Carter-Francique
The purpose of this article is to encourage administrators, faculty, and staff to foster a sense of belonging for students of color in kinesiology and affiliated academic units at institutions of higher education. Kinesiology is vast and has a range of corresponding workforce careers; however, despite equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, people of color still lag behind in representation. Acknowledging the current social and legislative climate that seeks to dismantle equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, the American Kinesiology Association as a leadership-driven membership has the opportunity to further its stance and governance through amplifying the sense of belonging as a social justice practice. Fostering a holistic sense of belonging for students of color beyond the conventional classroom can promote successful student outcomes with increased academic engagement and use of support services, increased personal self-concept and mental health and wellness, and an overall satisfaction with the college experience.
Background: Physical inactivity prevalence estimates for youth and adults have been published on a global scale and for various geographical and geopolitical permutations. Only one such study has presented estimates for adults in Muslim countries, and it is nearly 10 years old. I conducted an update of this study by incorporating newer data, refining methods, and including youth estimates. Methods: I identified 47 Muslim countries with physical inactivity data for youth, adults, or both. Data were extracted by country primarily from global estimates reported by Guthold et al in 2018 and 2020 and from World Health Organization surveillance data repositories. Weighted prevalence calculations for total prevalence and by sex, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab), and country income group accounted for country population, study sample size, and a country’s proportion of Muslims. Z tests and chi-square tests, and follow-up odds ratios and percentage deviations, respectively, were used to determine differences by sex, ethnicity, and country income group. Results: Overall physical inactivity prevalence was 84.2% (youth) and 29.6% (adults). Gaps favoring males over females were observed for youth (5.6% lower prevalence) and adults (9.6% lower prevalence). Gaps favoring non-Arabs over Arabs were observed for youth (3.9% lower) and adults (3.8% lower). No pattern emerged for country income group for youth; however, prevalence for adults trended upward across income groups from low (22.7%) to high (62.0%). Conclusions: Gaps by sex and ethnicity have narrowed since the original report and prevalence values are somewhat higher than current global estimates.
Ketra L. Armstrong
People have an innate and fundamental need to belong (i.e., to establish and maintain high-quality and enriching relationships with others). Belonging is important to our personal and professional lives, and culture is often the conduit filtering our sense of belonging. Some organizations are culturally inclusive wherein a culturally diverse array of individuals feel connected and have a sense of belonging. In contrast, others are marred by cultural exclusion, leaving some individuals culturally disconnected, culturally disengaged, and lacking a sense of belonging. This article posits cultural belonging as the “impoverishing errand” that kinesiology must accomplish. It discusses personal and positional culture, organizational culture, and the leadership needed in kinesiology to create institutional environments that support and sustain inclusive cultures of belonging for faculty, staff, and students. In so doing, it illustrates the need for the philosophical/ideological and managerial focus on people-centered leadership that normalizes cultural inclusion.