Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.
Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano
Kristin Manz, Alexander Burchartz, Claudia Niessner, Simon Kolb, Anja Schienkiewitz, and Gert B.M. Mensink
Background: Incomplete data due to nonparticipation and noncompliance with the study protocol can bias the results of studies. We investigated how a nationwide accelerometer sample of adolescents and young adults is affected by such incomplete data. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6465 participants (11–31 y old) who participated in a national health survey in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2; 2014–2017). The data included information about the participation in the measurement of physical activity using accelerometers, compliance with the wear-time protocol, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to detect factors associated with incomplete data. Results: Of the total sample, 78.0% participated in the accelerometer part of the study, and 83.5% of the participants with data available complied with the wear-time protocol. In 11- to 17-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in boys, older adolescents, adolescents with a lower sociodemographic status, adolescents with overweight, adolescents not participating in organized sport, adolescents not speaking only German at home, current smokers, and adolescents having a higher soft drink consumption. In 18- to 31-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in men, adults with a lower educational level, adults not speaking only German at home, and adults who smoke. Conclusions: Our results suggest that accelerometer samples are biased such that participants with more beneficial health behaviors provide complete accelerometer data more often. This knowledge should be used to design effective recruitment strategies and should be considered when interpreting results of accelerometer studies.
Jalil Moradi, Mohammad Maleki, and Hadi Moradi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of part and whole practice on learning basketball lay-up shot skill in young and adolescent male students. Participants were randomly divided into four groups of part and whole practice, namely, part practice-young, whole practice-young, part practice-adolescent, and whole practice-adolescent. After a pretest in basketball lay-up shot test, the training protocol was held for 5 weeks (three sessions per week). After the last training session, the posttest was taken, and 1 week after the posttest, a retention test was performed. The results in the acquisition stage showed a significant difference between the four groups (p = .03). The post hoc test results showed that there was no significant difference between the part and whole practice groups. Also, in the retention phase, there was no significant difference between the groups. However, the part practice-young group performed better than the whole practice-young group, while the whole practice-adolescent group performed better than the part practice-adolescent. According to the research findings, it can be concluded that age is probably not an effective factor in the effectiveness of part and whole practice in learning basketball lay-up shot. However, more research with more practice trials is needed in this regard.
Sameer Jhaveri, Matthew Romanyk, Ryan Glatt, and Nikhil Satchidanand
Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediate state between the cognitive decline often experienced in normal aging and dementia that affects 15% of Americans over 65 years of age. Our communities have an opportunity to support the development and adoption of evidence-based programs to help older adults preserve cognition and physical function. In partnership with a local urban YMCA in an underserved, predominantly minority neighborhood, we tested the appeal and therapeutic benefits of SMARTfit training among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. The participants reported a positive training experience. After 12 weeks of dual-task training, Trail-Making Test and Stroop Color–Word Interference Test scores improved, as did scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results of our SMARTfit dual-task training intervention are encouraging. Larger randomized controlled trials must further investigate the development, implementation, and therapeutic impacts of SMARTfit dual-task training on cognitive and physical function in aging.
Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl
The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.