You are looking at 1 - 10 of 8,467 items for :

  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Volume 31 (2023): Issue 6 (Dec 2023)

Restricted access

Volume 17 (2023): Issue 4 (Dec 2023): JCSP Special Issue Burnout in Sport and Performance, Part 2

Restricted access

Correlates of Fundamental Motor Skills in the Early Years (0–4 Years): A Systematic Review

Sanne L.C. Veldman, Jessica S. Gubbels, Amika S. Singh, Johan M. Koedijker, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, and Teatske M. Altenburg

Aim: This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on correlates of fundamental motor skills in typically developing children aged 0–4 years. Methods: A literature search (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) was performed from 2000 till 23 May 2022. Inclusion criteria was cross-sectional and prospective studies examining associations between a potential correlate and fundamental motor skills in typically developing, apparently healthy children aged 0–4 years. Two independent reviewers performed screening and methodological quality assessment. Results: Eighty-three studies met eligibility criteria and were included. Thirteen studies were of high methodological quality. In children aged <1 year, we found no evidence for family income, breastfeeding-related, sleep-related, home environment, and socioeconomic variables. In children aged 1–2 years, we found no evidence for sex, growth-related variables, singleton birth, and family income. In children aged 2–4 years, we found no evidence for screen behavior, toxicity, parental education, family income, socioeconomic variables, and maternal depression/anxiety and moderate evidence for a positive association with early childhood education and care setting type. For other examined correlates, we found insufficient evidence (inconsistent findings or only one study available). Conclusions: We found insufficient evidence for over half of examined potential correlates of fundamental motor skills. We recommend investing in better research methodologies and improved reporting.

Restricted access

Effects of Breaking Up Sedentary Behavior With Short Bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on Glycemia, Concentration, and Well-Being

Alexander Colvin, Lynne Murray, Jillian Noble, and Sebastien Chastin

Background: Investigating the effects of breaking up sedentary behavior with short bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on glycemic control, concentration, and well-being in healthy individuals. Methods: In this randomized balanced incomplete block study, 15 adults (age = 26 [2.50] y, 8 females) completed 2 of 3 protocols: uninterrupted sitting (Control), sitting interrupted with 3 minutes of Yoga every 30 minutes, or with 3 minutes of Tai-Chi every 30 minutes. Protocols lasted 7.5 hours and included a standardized diet. Glucose was measured every 30 minutes with a glucometer (Abbott FreeStyle Libre). Concentration and well-being were recorded with self-reported ecological momentary assessment. Area under the curve was calculated for glucose data. Statistical analyses were performed as a hierarchical repeated-measures model. Results: Glucose area under the curve for the Yoga intervention (34.55 [3.12] mmol/L) was significantly lower than the Control (38.14 [3.18] mmol/L; P < .05). There was a trend toward lower glucose in the Tai-Chi group compared with the Control, but no significant differences were found (AUCTai-Chi = 36.64 [3.11] mmol/L; P = .57). Mean concentration in all groups decreased throughout the day, with the largest decrease in the Control. Well-being for the Yoga and Control groups decreased but increased with Tai-Chi. Concentration and well-being responses were not statistically significant between intervention groups. Conclusions: Breaking up sedentary behavior using 3-minute bouts of Yoga significantly lowers blood glucose in healthy individuals without compromising concentration or well-being. Tai-Chi did not provide the same significant effect on glucose levels but allowed better maintenance of concentration and well-being. These interventions provide effective ways to combat the deleterious effects of prolonged sedentary time while maintaining concentration and well-being.

Restricted access

Latin Dance Effects on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Function in Middle-Aged and Older Latino Adults

Omar Lopez, Navin Kaushal, Michelle A. Jaldin, and David X. Marquez

We tested if a dance trial yielded improvements in physical function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged/older Latino adults. Physical activity was assessed using the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors, physical function with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) protocol, and estimated CRF with the Jurca nonexercise test model. Multivariate analysis of covariance models found significant change in SPPB protocol total scores, F(1, 329) = 4.23, p = .041, and CRF, F(1, 329) = 5.16, p = .024, between the two study arms in favor of the dance group. Mediation models found moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity to mediate to mediate between group and SPPB scores (β = 0.054, 95% confidence interval [0.0142, 0.1247]). Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and total physical activity were found to partially mediate between group and CRF (β = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [−0.0261, 0.0751]), with the direct pathway no longer being significant (p > .05). This provides support for Latin dance programs to have an effect on SPPB protocol and CRF.

Restricted access

Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Impairments Affects Gait Parameters in the Spatial Navigation Task

Natalia Anna Pawlaczyk, Rafał Milner, Magdalena Szmytke, Bartłomiej Kiljanek, Bibianna Bałaj, Aleksandra Wypych, and Monika Lewandowska

Both navigation abilities and gait can be affected by the atrophy in the medial temporal cortex. This study aimed to determine whether navigation abilities could differentiate seniors with and without medial temporal lobe atrophy who complained about their cognitive status. The participants, classified to either the medial temporal atrophy group (n = 23) or the control group (n = 22) underwent neuropsychological assessment and performed a spatial navigation task while their gait parameters were recorded. The study showed no significant differences between the two groups in memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge or typical measures of navigating abilities. However, gait parameters, particularly the propulsion index during certain phases of the navigation task, distinguished between seniors with and without medial temporal lobe lesions. These findings suggest that the gait parameters in the navigation task may be a valuable tool for identifying seniors with cognitive complaints and subtle medial temporal atrophy.

Open access

The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport

Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson

In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.

Free access

Erratum. Are Preference and Tolerance Measured With the PRETIE-Q (Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionaire) Relevant Constructs for Understanding Exercise Intensity in Physical Activity? A Scoping Review

Kinesiology Review

Restricted access

Age Differences in a Combined Walking and Grasping Task

Andrea H. Mason, Alejandra S. Padilla, and Kristen A. Pickett

Previous studies have identified patterns of coordinated control when adults combine gait and grasping. What remains unclear is whether the coordination of these two tasks differs between adolescent and adult groups. Groups of adults and adolescents were asked to walk across an instrumented gait mat in three conditions: walk forward, walk and grasp a small target, and walk and grasp a large target. Spatiotemporal measures of gait/gait variability and grasp/grasp variability were quantified. Both adolescents and young adults exhibited decreased velocity, decreased step-extremity ratio, and increased percent of gait cycle spent in double support when grasping compared to walking alone. The major influence of grasping was seen during the final step before grasp in both groups. Change scores between walk forward and walk and grasp conditions were larger for adolescents. Furthermore, spatiotemporal measures of gait and grasping were more variable in adolescents. These results suggest that superimposing grasp onto gait is more challenging for adolescents than young adults. The challenges associated with combining these two tasks is particularly evident in the last step prior to object contact and suggests that the increased planning and execution demands required to perform these coordinated skills affects adolescents to a greater extent than young adults.

Open access

Dynamic Lower Limb Alignment During Jumping in Preschool Children: Normative Profiles and Sex Differences

Steen Harsted, Lise Hestbæk, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen, and Henrik Hein Lauridsen

The natural development of static lower limb varus/valgus alignments during early childhood is well understood. However, our understanding of dynamic lower limb frontal plane alignments is limited, and we lack normative descriptions of this phenomenon for both boys and girls. This study investigated dynamic lower limb alignment during jump-landings in preschool children, focusing on associations with sex, age, and motor performance. Dynamic lower limb alignment was measured as the Knee-to-Ankle Separation Ratio (KASR) in 605 children aged 3–6 years using markerless motion capture. Based on KASR measurements, we categorized the children into three kinematic groups: Valgus, Intermediate, and Varus. Median KASR scores were 0.86 (0.80–0.96) overall, 0.89 (0.81–0.98) for boys, and 0.85 (0.78–0.92) for girls. Over 75% of the children exhibited some level of dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings (KASR < 1). However, roughly two-thirds of the children in the Valgus group were girls. Age-adjusted differences in motor performance were small and only statistically significant for jump height and length in girls. These findings suggest that dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings is a common occurrence in preschool children, especially among girls. The potential relationship between dynamic lower limb alignment and age and motor performance warrants further investigation.