Sport event studies have demonstrated that relevant stakeholders must share objectives and coordinate efforts to leverage a large-scale sport event to secure positive legacies. However, the challenging and complex task of collaboration between networks of diverse organizational stakeholders to secure legacies has received little scholarly attention. In this conceptual paper, the authors explore, through a political economy lens, differences between the political economies of sports and sport events pertaining to mass sport participation legacies. The authors focus on the mesolevel and consider how divergences in political economy elements—structure and context, stakeholders and ideas/incentives, and bargaining processes—influence the likelihood of mass sport participation legacies from large-scale sport events. The authors suggest a need for event legacy stakeholders to engage more meaningfully with the complexities surrounding securing mass sport participation legacies. In addition, they provide pragmatic, actionable implications for policy and practice to assist stakeholders in addressing the challenges they face to maximize legacy outcomes.
Alana Thomson, Kristine Toohey, and Simon Darcy
Erianne A. Weight, Elizabeth Taylor, Matt R. Huml, and Marlene A. Dixon
As thousands of professionals are drawn to work in the sport industry known for celebrity, action, and excitement, a growing body of literature on the industry’s culture describes a field fraught with burnout, stress, and difficulty balancing work–family responsibilities. Given this contradiction, there is a need to better understand employee experiences. Thus, the authors utilized a human capital framework to develop employee archetypes. Results from a latent cluster analysis of National Collegiate Athletic Association athletics department employees (N = 4,324) revealed five distinct employee archetypes utilizing inputs related to human capital development and work experiences (e.g., work–family interface, work engagement, age). Consistent with creative nonfiction methodology, results are presented as composite narratives. Archetypes follow a career arc from early-career support staff to late-career senior leaders and portray an industry culture wherein the human capital is largely overworked, underpaid, and replete with personal sacrifice and regret.
Niels B. Feddersen, Robert Morris, Louise K. Storm, Martin A. Littlewood, and David J. Richardson
The purpose was to examine the power relations during a change of culture in an Olympic sports organization in the United Kingdom. The authors conducted a 16-month longitudinal study combining action research and grounded theory. The data collection included ethnography and a focus group discussion (n = 10) with athletes, coaches, parents, and the national governing body. The authors supplemented these with 26 interviews with stakeholders, and we analyzed the data using grounded theory. The core concept found was that power relations were further divided into systemic power and informational power. Systemic power (e.g., formal authority to reward or punish) denotes how the national governing bodies sought to implement change from the top-down and impose new strategies on the organization. The informational power (e.g., tacit feeling of oneness and belonging) represented how individuals and subunits mobilized coalitions to support or obstruct the sports organization’s agenda. Olympic sports organizations should consider the influence of power when undertaking a change of culture.
Fraser Carson, Clara McCormack, Paula McGovern, Samara Ralston, and Julia Walsh
This best practice paper reflects on a pilot coach education program designed for women coaching Australian Rules football. Focused on enhancing self-regulation, and underpinned by a growth mindset framework, the “Coach like a Woman” program was delivered to a selected group of female coaches either working in or having been identified with the potential to coach at high-performance levels. This manuscript describes the program content and discusses the key insights identified by the delivery team. Creating a community of practice encouraged the transfer of knowledge and experience between the enrolled coaches, which increased competence and self-confidence. Providing an understanding of behavioral tendencies enhanced positive self-talk and aided self-regulation by the coaches. The delivery of the program and challenges experienced are also discussed. This reflection on the program is provided to assist future developments in coach education.
Kirsty Forsdike and Simone Fullagar
In this article, we discuss the process and outcomes arising from a unique collaboration involving researchers and professionals to explore key gaps and challenges in sport organizations’ responses to violence against women. Using the World Café method in a 1-day research forum in Victoria, Australia, we brought together state sport organizations, violence against women organizations, and multidisciplinary researchers to reflect upon the multiple contexts that shape violence against women in community sport. Drawing together insights from feminist research and a socioecological perspective, this article contributes to sport management scholarship by using an innovative methodology for collaborative knowledge sharing and creation to explore the challenges and opportunities for organizational action to address violence against women. We advance a gendered lens for understanding how power relations shape sport management practice contexts as well as future research into organizational thinking, research, and responses to violence against women.
Andrew Sortwell, Michael Newton, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Offering children chances to optimize their engagement in physical activities during their life span is one of the major aims of school physical education (PE). To this end, the maximum development of motor performance skills can help primary school children participate in various physical activities throughout their lives. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of plyometric training activities on motor performance skills of children and the application of plyometrics within the PE setting. Relevant studies on the topics of motor performance skills, plyometrics, athlete development, and motor development in children and adolescents were examined. The paper reveals that plyometric training activities can improve motor performance skills such as running, jumping, and kicking. The literature also suggests that children’s exposure to plyometric exercises may result in an accelerated improvement in primary school PE class. This review concludes with a proposal to enhance children’s motor performance skills using plyometric exercises in primary PE classes.
Kihan Kim, Hojun Sung, Yeayoung Noh, and Kimoon Lee
This study investigated the determinants of television viewership and its relation to broadcasters’ choices of matches for live telecasts. Also, factors driving the broadcasters’ choices were examined. A panel data set from the 2018 Korea Baseball Organization league pennant race was analyzed. Broadcasters’ choice order of matches and the actual television ratings of each match were regressed on a series of antecedent factors related to the game characteristics and audience preferences. It was found that the broadcasters’ choice order of matches positively affected the television ratings, suggesting that the broadcasters’ decisions were well reflected in the actual viewership. It also appeared that broadcasters’ choices were based on popularity and team performance/quality, whereas viewers showed preference for current games’ on-field performance. There was no evidence of audience preference for games with higher outcome uncertainty, whereas the broadcasters tended to choose games with more certain, rather than uncertain, outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
Asmaa M. Elbandrawy, Sara G. Mahmoud, Mohamed F. AboElinin, and Amel M. Yousef
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of aerobic walking exercise on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) among postmenopausal women. Thirty females diagnosed with SUI participated in the research. Participants were assigned randomly into two groups: The usual care group (UC) and the UC plus aerobic walking exercise (TMT) group. The UC group performed pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training only, while the TMT group performed PFM training in addition to aerobic exercise. Myomed biofeedback was used to assess the PFM strength both before and after a 12-week period. The Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale was utilized to assess changes in incontinence severity symptoms after intervention. Findings revealed a significant increase in PFM strength in both UC and TMT groups (p = .011 and p = .010, respectively) and a significant reduction in their Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale (p = .011 and p = .001, respectively) after the end of the 12 weeks of the training program. In addition, there was a more significant increase in PFM strength in the TMT group than in the UC group (p = .010) and a more significant decrease in Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale (p = .011) after 12 weeks of the training program. This study concluded that aerobic walking exercise with PFM training is more effective than PFM training only in increasing PFM strength and improving symptoms of SUI in postmenopausal women with SUI.
Jonathan Robertson, Mathew Dowling, Marvin Washington, Becca Leopkey, Dana Lee Ellis, and Lee Smith
Institutional theory has generated considerable insight into fundamental issues within sport. This study seeks to advance Washington and Patterson’s review by providing an empirical review of institutional theory in sport. We follow Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review protocol to identify 188 sport-related institutional studies between 1979 and 2019. Our review provides evidence regarding the state of institutional scholarship within sport via an analysis of authorship, year, journal, methodology, method, study population, and use of institutional constructs (legitimacy, isomorphism, change, logics, fields, and work). Rather than a hostile takeover or a joint venture proposed in Washington and Patterson’s review, the relationship between fields is more aptly described as a diffusion of ideas. By developing an empirical review of institutional studies in sport, we hope to expedite the diffusion of ideas between the two fields and work toward realizing the collective benefits any future joint venture may bring.