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Development and Validation of the Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery Ability Questionnaire

Matthew W. Scott, Maaike Esselaar, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Ben Marshall, Aimee S. Deacon, Paul S. Holmes, and David J. Wright

Combined use of action observation and motor imagery (AOMI) is an increasingly popular motor-simulation intervention, which involves observing movements on video while simultaneously imagining the feeling of movement execution. Measuring and reporting participant imagery-ability characteristics are essential in motor-simulation research, but no measure of AOMI ability currently exists. Accordingly, the AOMI Ability Questionnaire (AOMI-AQ) was developed to address this gap in the literature. In Study 1, two hundred eleven participants completed the AOMI-AQ and the kinesthetic imagery subscales of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 and Vividness of Motor Imagery Questionnaire-2. Following exploratory factor analysis, an 8-item AOMI-AQ was found to correlate positively with existing motor-imagery measures. In Study 2, one hundred seventy-four participants completed the AOMI-AQ for a second time after a period of 7–10 days. Results indicate a good test–retest reliability for the AOMI-AQ. The new AOMI-AQ measure provides a valid and reliable tool for researchers and practitioners wishing to assess AOMI ability.

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Digest

Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Erratum. Predicting Accelerometer-Assessed Estimates of Adolescent’s Multidimensional Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

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The Sport Experience Measure for Children and Youth (SEM:CY): A Rasch Validation Study

Philip Jefferies, Matthew Y.W. Kwan, Denver M.Y. Brown, Mark W. Bruner, Katherine A. Tamminen, and John Cairney

This study employed Rasch analyses to validate a novel measure of sport experience: the Sport Experience Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY). Analyses were applied to self-reported data of n = 503 young people (age 9–18 years, M = 12.91, 50% female) in Canada who were engaging in sport during the previous 12 months. The revised measure, consisting of 24 items on a 3-point response scale, demonstrated good fit statistics (e.g., item fit residual: M = −0.50, SD = 0.94 and person fit residual: M = −0.62, SD = 2.33), an ability to reliably discriminate between levels of sport experience, and an absence of differential item functioning for various groups (males and females, older and younger individuals, solo and team sports, and those playing at various competitive levels, including recreation). The SEM:CY is a succinct tool that can serve as a valuable means to gauge the quality of an individual’s sport experience, which can facilitate positive youth development and sustain participation across the life span.

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Inhibition of Ironic Errors and Facilitation of Overcompensation Errors Under Pressure: An Investigation Including Perceived Weakness

Hiroki Nakamoto, Shoya Hashimoto, Mio Kamei, Munenori Murata, Sachi Ikudome, Kenta Karakida, and Yoshifumi Tanaka

The conflicting predictions of ironic process theory and the implicit overcompensation hypothesis have been presented as a framework to explain the characteristics of errors that occur when a certain behavior is prohibited. The former predicts that instructions prohibiting a particular behavior will increase the likelihood of an outcome that should be avoided (ironic error), whereas the latter predicts that the likelihood of an outcome opposite of that to be avoided (overcompensation error) will increase. We examined how these errors, which negatively affect performance, are influenced by pressure and perceived weakness. Participants performed a tennis-stroke task, aiming to hit a ball toward a target zone while avoiding a discouraged zone. The results indicate that pressure decreases the ironic errors but increases the overcompensation errors that occur when a particular behavior is discouraged, while an increase in perceived weakness induces random errors.

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A Pilot Randomized Trial of Combined Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Exercise Training Versus Exercise Training Alone for the Management of Chronic Insomnia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Amanda Cammalleri, Aurore A. Perrault, Alexandra Hillcoat, Emily Carrese-Chacra, Lukia Tarelli, Rahul Patel, Marc Baltzan, Florian Chouchou, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Jean-Philippe Gouin, and Veronique Pepin

Insomnia treatment among individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea is suboptimal. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, 19 individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea were allocated to one of two arms: EX + EX, consisting of two 8-week phases of exercise training (EX), or RE + CBTiEX, encompassing 8 weeks of relaxation training (RE) followed by 8 weeks of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise (CBTiEX). Outcomes included Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), polysomnography, and cardiorespiratory fitness measures. A mixed-model analysis of variance revealed a Group × Time interaction on peak oxygen consumption change, F(1, 14) = 10.1, p = .007, and EX increased peak oxygen consumption (p = .03, g′ = −0.41) and reduced ISI (p = .001, g′ = 0.82) compared with RE (p = .49, g = 0.16) post-8 weeks. Post-16 weeks, there was a significant Group × Time interaction (p = .014) driven by RE + CBTiEX yielding a larger improvement in ISI (p = .023, g′ = 1.48) than EX + EX (p = .88, g′ < 0.1). Objective sleep was unchanged. This study showed promising effects of regular EX alone and combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia on ISI in comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea.

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Predicting Accelerometer-Assessed Estimates of Adolescents’ Multidimensional Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

Lydia G. Emm-Collison, Martyn Standage, Fiona B. Gillison, and Thomas Curran

Based on the tenets in self-determination theory, a dual-process model of motivational processes was tested to predict accelerometer-assessed estimates of adolescents’ light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time. Here, we hypothesized that (a) perceptions of psychological need support for exercise would be positively associated with LPA and MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time via exercise-related psychological need satisfaction and autonomous exercise motivation and (b) perceptions of psychological need thwarting for exercise would be negatively associated with LPA and MVPA and positively associated with sedentary time via exercise-related psychological need frustration and controlled exercise motivation. Adolescents (N = 338; 234 female) age 11–15 years (M = 12.75, SD = .90) wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 8 days and completed questionnaires pertaining to the self-determination-theory variables. Results showed psychological need support to indirectly and positively predict LPA and MVPA via psychological need satisfaction and autonomous exercise motivation. Although directly predictive of need frustration and indirectly predictive of controlled motivation and amotivation, the hypothesized effects from psychological need thwarting to the behavioral outcomes were nonsignificant. The current findings highlight the important role that need-supportive environments play in facilitating autonomous exercise motivation and behavior by being conducive to exercise-related psychological need satisfaction.

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When Studying Affective Responses to Exercise, the Definition of “Intensity” Must Reference Homeostatic Perturbations: A Retort to Vollaard et al.

Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Mark E. Hartman, and Matthew A. Ladwig

In articles on the methodology of studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training, we noted that, occasionally, exercise conditions described as involving “high” intensity exhibited heart rates that were only as high as, or even lower than, heart rates recorded during comparator conditions described as being of “moderate” intensity. Drs. Vollaard, Metcalfe, Kinghorn, Jung, and Little suggest instead that exercise intensity in high-intensity interval-training studies can be defined in terms of percentages of peak workload. Although we maintain that defining exercise intensity in terms of percentages of maximal heart rate is a suboptimal way to quantify the degree of homeostatic perturbations in response to exercise, we are unconvinced that definitions of intensity relying solely on workload are appropriate for studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to exercise. The reason is that affect is theorized to have evolved to relay information about homeostatic perturbations to consciousness.

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Percentage of Peak Workload Is Suitable for Quantification of Exercise Intensity During High-Intensity Intervals: A Comment on Ekkekakis, Hartman, and Ladwig

Niels B.J. Vollaard, Richard S. Metcalfe, Daniel Kinghorn, Mary E. Jung, and Jonathan P. Little

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Parents on the Concept of Physical Literacy: What Do They Know, What Do They Do, and What Do They Want?

Aaron Simpson, Ben Jackson, Ashleigh L. Thornton, Michael Rosenberg, Brodie Ward, Peter Roberts, Amanda Derbyshire, and Timothy Budden

Physical literacy development in early childhood, viewed by many as the foundation for lifelong physical activity engagement, is significantly influenced by parents. Our aim was to explore parents’ understanding of physical literacy and gain insight into their perspectives on physical literacy promotion. We recruited 18 parents of children between 5 and 8 years old in Australia. Using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis, we identified several key issues regarding parents’ understanding and implementation of physical literacy. Parents expressed interest in improving their implementation of physical literacy practices and had (often unintentionally) provided support for physical literacy subcomponents in the past. However, they described difficulties prioritizing physical literacy above other parental demands and expressed conflicting perceptions regarding where the responsibility should lie for developing their child’s physical literacy (e.g., at home or at school). To ensure that the physical literacy “message” reaches parents, we encourage physical literacy promoters to consider the target (e.g., responsibility, priorities, and awareness) of their promotional strategies. Further investigation into the influence of sociocultural and economic factors on parents’ understanding and application of physical literacy is warranted.