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Nick Galli, Skye Shodahl, and Mark P. Otten

Because an athletes’ body is central to their identity, it is important to consider the ramifications of retirement from sport on their well-being. Using a single-group pre–post test design, the purpose of this exploratory study was to expand on the current state of knowledge regarding the body image and health behavior transition of retired intercollegiate athletes. Ten athletes from three institutions completed demographic and health behavior questions, the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire, and selected items from the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised online prior to and after retirement (M = 305 days). Although most athletes reported maintaining healthy patterns of nutrition and physical activity in retirement, results showed that body satisfaction significantly declined, and that actual–ideal body discrepancy increased, albeit to a nonsignificant degree. National Collegiate Athletic Association athletics departments to consider how they can more effectively empower athletes to take care of and appreciate their body even after the final performance.

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Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird

The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.

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Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Matías Henríquez, Alba Roldan, and Raúl Reina

This study aimed to analyze whether there are differences and associations in the physical responses in international-level cerebral palsy footballers between official matches and 2v2 small-sided games (2v2-SSG). One hundred seventy international cerebral palsy footballers participated in this study during three international championships. The physical responses of mean and maximum velocities, total distance, distance covered at different intensities, short-term actions, and player load were collected during 2v2-SSG and the real competition. The mean velocity, total distance, jogging, medium- and high-intensity distances, the number of moderate/high accelerations, decelerations, and player load were relatively higher in the 2v2-SSG than in the official matches. Even though the 2v2-SSG could become an appropriate drill to include during the classification process, due to the differences between a 2v2-SSG and the official competition, it is necessary to deepen the scientific knowledge for developing observation methods during real competition to strengthen the relationships between eligible impairments and activity limitation.

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Rumit S. Kakar, Seth Higgins, Joshua M. Tome, Natalie Knight, Zachary Finer, Zachary Doig, and Yumeng Li

The purpose of this study was to investigate normative and age-related differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics and intersegmental coordination during sagittal plane flexion–extension. Trunk and pelvis kinematics were recorded while 76 participants performed a maximal range of motion task in the sagittal plane. Cross-correlation was calculated to determine the phase lag between adjacent segment motion, and coupling angles were calculated using vector coding and classified into one of 4 coordination patterns: in-phase, antiphase, superior, and inferior phase. A 2-way mixed-model multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare lumbar spine and pelvis angular kinematics, phase lags, and cross-correlation coefficients between groups. Young participants exhibited greater trunk range of motion compared with middle-aged participants. The lumbar spine and pelvis were predominantly rotating with minimum phase lag during flexion and extension movement for both age groups, and differences in coordination between the groups were seen during hyperextension and return to upright position. In conclusion, middle-aged adults displayed lower range of motion but maintained similar movement patterns to young adults, which could be attributed to protective mechanisms. Healthy lumbar and pelvis movement patterns are important to understand and need to be quantified as a baseline, which can be used to develop rehabilitation protocols for individuals with spinal ailments.

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Bernadette “Bernie” Compton

In recent years, some sport psychology professionals have called for research and praxis embracing social justice, intersectionality, and inclusion. This special issue in the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology also points toward the importance of embracing social justice work within the field. In the following article, I share my journey and reflections about my experience with social justice and sport psychology. The story is deeply personal and provides examples I have found integral in my journey. Recommendations from my personal journey will be provided for sport psychology professionals interested in social justice work.

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Erik T. Hummer, Tanner Thorsen, Joshua T. Weinhandl, Jeffrey A. Reinbolt, Harrold Cates, and Songning Zhang

Patients following unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) display interlimb differences in knee joint kinetics during gait and more recently, stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling to estimate total, medial, and lateral tibiofemoral compressive forces for patients following TKA during stationary cycling. Fifteen patients of unilateral TKA, from the same surgeon, participated in cycling at 2 workrates (80 and 100 W). A knee model (OpenSim 3.2) was used to estimate total, medial, and lateral tibiofemoral compressive forces for replaced and nonreplaced limbs. A 2 × 2 (limb × workrate) and a 2 × 2 × 2 (compartment × limb × workrate) analysis of variance were run on the selected variables. Peak medial tibiofemoral compressive force was 23.5% lower for replaced compared to nonreplaced limbs (P = .004, G = 0.80). Peak medial tibiofemoral compressive force was 48.0% greater than peak lateral tibiofemoral compressive force in nonreplaced limbs (MD = 344.5 N, P < .001, G = 1.6) with no difference in replaced limbs (P = .274). Following TKA, patients have greater medial compartment loading on their nonreplaced compared to their replaced limbs and ipsilateral lateral compartment loading. This disproportionate loading may be cause for concern regarding exacerbating contralateral knee osteoarthritis.

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Stephen Shannon, Mark Shevlin, and Gavin Breslin

Aim: A recent mental health in sport consensus statement advocates Keyes’ two continua model with an associated Mental Health Continuum (MHC) instrument to assess mental health in athletes. However, there remains statistically inconsistent usage of the MHC in athletes, so further exploration of the MHC’s psychometric factors is required. Methods: Athletes (N = 1,097) aged 32.63 (SD = 11.16) comprising 603 females (55.7%) and 478 males (44.3%), completed the 14-item MHC-Short Form, alongside validated measures of anxiety and depression. Five confirmatory factor analytic and bifactor models were developed based on extant research and theory. Results: Overall, a bifactor structure with a “general” positive mental health factor, and three specific factors (“hedonic well-being,” “social well-being,” and “psychological well-being”) fitted the data well and was deemed the superior model. Conclusion: A bifactor model of the MHC-Short Form is recommended comprising a composite score alongside specific factors of hedonic, social, and psychological well-being.

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Leonardo S. Fortes, Maicon R. Albuquerque, Heloiana K.C. Faro, Dalton de Lima-Júnior, Maria E.C. Ferreira, and Sebastião S. Almeida

The study aimed to analyze the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on soccer athletes’ decision making and visual search behavior. It was a single-blind, randomized, and experimental investigation. The 23 soccer athletes were pair-matched according to decision-making skill and then randomized into two groups: a-tDCS and sham. The decision making (during small-sided game and screen task) and visual search behavior were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Only the a-tDCS group reduced response time in the decision-making screen task (p < .05). The a-tDCS group showed a higher number of fixations than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. The a-tDCS group showed a lower duration of fixation than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. Our results indicated that using a-tDCS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed visual search behavior and improved the response time of decision-making skill.