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Volume 43 (2024): Issue 3 (Jul 2024)

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Erratum. Gender Differences in Students’ Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Levels During Primary School Physical Education Lessons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

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Social and Emotional Learning Through a Sports-Based Youth Development Program Grounded in a Hybrid Model-Based Practice

Yanhua Shen, Benedict Dyson, Seunghyun Baek, Donal Howley, and Fan Zhang

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the student’s experiences of social and emotional learning in a community-based youth soccer program grounded in the hybridization of the teaching personal and social responsibility model and the cooperative learning model. Methods: This research was guided by a case study design. Qualitative data were collected over 28 weeks. Twenty-three children (n = 23) participated in the study. Eleven individual interviews, six focus group interviews, two rounds of student drawing activities, and 22 researcher’s self-reflection journals were taken during the program. Inductive analysis and constant comparison were used for data analysis. Results: Four themes were drawn from the collected data: trying your best, respecting each other, learning and working as a team, and making your responsibilities at home and school. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that the hybridization of teaching personal and social responsibility and cooperative learning could be an effective pedagogical approach for students’ social and emotional learning development in sports-based youth development programs.

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Gender Differences in Students’ Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Levels During Primary School Physical Education Lessons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Diego Arenas, Josep Vidal-Conti, and Adrià Muntaner-Mas

Purpose: We aimed to determine gender differences in students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels measured in primary school by accelerometry. Methods: Our systematic search (PROSPERO: CRD42023422799) was developed using four electronic databases (from January 2013 to December 22, 2023). Our meta-analysis was conducted based on a random-effects model. Results: The search yielded 6255 manuscripts. Only 24 manuscripts were included in the systematic review, reporting 7550 participants. Finally, 19 manuscripts were meta-analyzed. Our analyses indicated that the mean percentages (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.40, p < .001) of MVPA in primary school physical education (PE) lessons were 28.75 ± 13.75 for boys and 25.99 ± 12.35 for girls. In addition, the mean minutes (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.27, p < .001) were 13.75 ± 9.91 for boys and 12.15 ± 8.88 for girls. Students failed to meet the 50% recommendation of MVPA lesson time. Conclusion: Boys spend significantly more time in MVPA than girls during PE lessons in primary school. The findings show the need for methodological changes in PE to reduce this gender gap.

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A 20-Year Systematic Review of Before- and After-School Physical Activity Research (2000–2020)

Risto Marttinen, Alba Rodrigues, Oscar Nuñez-Enriquez, Erin Centeio, and Dominique Banville

Purpose: This systematic review aimed at identifying, categorizing, and analyzing peer-reviewed literature on organized before- and after-school (B&ASP) physical activity programs from 2000 to 2020. Methods: We analyzed 291 articles that fit the inclusion criteria from five databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines were followed. Results: Research on B&ASPs has increased and been published in 157 journals across 26 countries. Most studies were quantitative. Most studies used a theoretical or conceptual framework and reported reliability, validity, and trustworthiness. Varied additional foci of impact were reported through different physical activities. However, physical activity was usually not measured. Interventions were 1–520 weeks long and conducted in different study contexts. Many studies targeted marginalized groups but did not utilize critical theory. Conclusion: Further studies should aim to better understand the nuances of B&ASPs, and critical theories could be useful. The lack of journals for B&ASP research limits scholars’ ability to move the field forward.

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An Exploration of the Use of Twitter as a Professional Development Platform for In-Service Secondary School Physical Educators

Olivia Haslam and Ashley Casey

Purpose: To explore secondary school physical educators’ use of Twitter (now X) for professional development, examining engagement patterns and evolution over time through the lens of sense of community theory. Method: Sixty-one secondary school physical educators completed a questionnaire shared on Twitter (now X). Ten teachers also completed individual semistructured interviews. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were constructed: (a) physical educator Twitter engagement and its impact, (b) evolution of educators Twitter use over time, and (c) opportunities and advice for physical educators. Discussion/Conclusion: This study explored how physical educators use Twitter (X) for professional development and highlighted its impact on teaching practices, networking, and professional opportunities while noting concerns about the pressure of being perfect and the control exerted by X’s algorithms. Future research should assess the consistency of these findings and explore Twitter’s rebranding to X and its implications for users’ community sense and engagement.

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Validity of Synchronous Online Physical Education Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic

Janet S. Mariano and Luisito S. Macapagal

Purpose: Various online physical education activities and methods have been applied to colleges in the Philippines during the COVID-19 confinement. However, much remains unknown about the effects of the physical activity given to students. This study aimed to analyze the validity of online synchronous physical education classes using a progressive cardio workout program among college students. Method: One hundred and ninety-four physical education students enrolled in morning class voluntarily participated. Baseline and posttest measures included resting heart rates, training heart rates, heart rate recovery (HRR), and the YMCA 3-min step test (YMCA 3MST). Results: The progressive cardio workout program over the 8 weeks significantly improved the training heart rate of the participants, X 2 F (7) = 475.397, p = .001. Also, there is a significant difference between pretest HRR (Mdn = 24) from posttest HRR (Mdn = 16), W = 10,863, p < .001. The pretest HRR was significantly higher than the posttest HRR, the rank–biserial correlation, r B  = .586, suggests that this is a large effect size. Further, the pretest YMCA 3MST (Mdn = 120.5) was significantly different from the posttest YMCA 3MST (Mdn = 116), W = 10,946, p < .001, the rank–biserial correlation, r B  = .286, suggests that this is a small to medium effect size. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the 8-week progressive cardio workout program significantly improves the participants’ cardiorespiratory fitness based on the pre- and posttraining heart rate, HRR, and YMCA 3MST results.

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“En el buen camino”: Colaboración entre maestros e investigadores para la implementación del aprendizaje cooperativo en la educación física de educación primaria

Joan Arumí-Prat, Gemma Torres-Cladera, and Gil Pla-Campas

Propósito : Dada la dificultad existente en la implementación de los Modelo Basado en la Práctica (MBP) en la educación física (EF) expresada en la literatura, se presenta un estudio sobre la aplicación del Aprendizaje Cooperativo (AC) en la EF de primaria. Método : Un equipo investigador trans-institucional (escuela-universidad) experto en AC, supervisó y desarrolló un análisis temático narrativo de caso único a partir de los relatos autoetnográficos creativos, pero no ficticios, de una maestra de EF de 5° curso. Resultados : Se presentan cinco relatos no ficcionales que narran en crudo eventos significativos de cada una de las condiciones básicas de la AC. Discusión/Conclusión : La investigación evidencia el valor de las narrativas como motor de reflexión educativa que contribuye a mostrar la complejidad en la aplicación del AC en un aula y a disminuir la brecha existente entre la teoría de los MBP y su aplicación práctica.

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Are Gender Stereotypes Still Prevalent in Physical Education? Spanish Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Gender Equity

Marina Castro-García, Carmen Barquero-Ruiz, and Cristina López-Villar

Purpose: Grounded in doing gender theory, the purpose is to explore physical education teachers’ and students’ beliefs and attitudes toward gender equity in physical education and sports and to identify possible aspects to be addressed. Method: This is a cross-sectional study in which a random sampling by multistage clusters was followed. Participants included 90 physical education teachers and 644 secondary school students, who completed two different questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests, one-factor analysis of variance, and two-way analysis of variance comparisons. Findings: Most students and teachers showed equitable beliefs and attitudes at a sociocultural level. The intersection of teachers’ age and self-identified sex/gender, and the self-identified sex/gender of students, played a significant role in the stereotypes. There was a gap between teachers’ results and students’ perceptions. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the need to implement critical feminist curricular approaches, especially with preservice teachers. Moreover, it is important that these approaches work on masculinities.

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Exploring Solidarity in Action: Key Methodological Features for Collaborative Research in Physical Education

Luiz Gustavo Bonatto Rufino, Cassandra Iannucci, Deniz Hunuk, Carla Vidoni, Carla Nascimento Luguetti, Luiza Lana Gonçalves, Heidi Jancer Ferreira, Paula Batista, Cecilia Borges, Ann MacPhail, Luiz Sanches Neto, and Samuel de Souza Neto

Purpose: This paper delves into the approach of solidarity in action as a collaborative research methodology in the field of physical education, based on Freire’s concepts of solidarity and circle of culture. In a landscape marked by competitiveness and hierarchy, this paper emphasizes the importance of mutual understanding, empathy, and collective struggle for social change in academia. Results: The paper explores a case study of an international project and highlights three key features: (a) intentionality in group creation, (b) levels of collaboration and horizontal relationships, and (c) democratic facilitation. These features stress the importance of collective action, open dialogue, and shared responsibility. Solidarity in action emerges as a methodology designed to cultivate communities, promote critical engagement, and address social injustices. Conclusion: By integrating solidarity in action into research, the paper advocates for a more inclusive, equitable, and culturally sensitive approach in physical education, highlighting the potential for positive change in academia.