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Connor J.M. Holdback, Rony Ibrahim, David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw, and Richard M. Kelso

This research provides a review of seated shot put alongside new data from the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games with the aim to understand the latest trends in equipment within a recently established rule set and how key equipment variables may impact performance for athletes in different classifications. First, a review of the literature found that the throwing pole is a key equipment aid that is not well understood, in part due to limitations in testing design. New data from the 2020 Paralympic Games showed inconsistent trends for the use of the throwing pole among athletes, particularly in transitionary classes (F33–34 and F54–55). A two-way analysis of variance found a main effect of classification on performance (p < .001), as well as an interaction effect between pole use and classification on performance (p < .05). Notably, pole users are seen to perform better than non–pole users in Class F32 (p < .05).

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Rebecca A.M. Wills, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Marina Mourtzakis, and Clark R. Dickerson

Breast cancer affects one in 8 females with a 5-year survival rate of 89%. Up to 72% of breast cancer survivors have trouble with activities of daily living (ADL) following treatment. Increased time-from-treatment improves some measures of function, yet ADL limitations persist. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of time-from-treatment on upper extremity kinematics during ADLs in breast cancer survivors. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors were divided into 2 groups: <1 year (n = 12) and 1–2 years (n = 17) from treatment. Kinematics were collected during 6 ADL tasks, and humerothoracic joint angles were quantified. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance assessed the effects of time-from-treatment and arm on maximum angles for each ADL. Decreased maximum angle existed for breast cancer survivors with increased time-from-treatment during all ADLs. Breast cancer survivors in the 1–2 years group used ∼28° to 32° lower elevation, ∼14° to 28° lower axial rotation, and ∼10° to 14° lower plane of elevation range across tasks. Decreased ranges of arm movement during ADLs with increased time-from-treatment may reflect compensatory movement strategies. Recognizing this shift in strategies and accompanying underlying disease progression can help inform responses to functional performance limitations in breast cancer survivors as delayed effects are present posttreatment.

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Marie-Reine El-Hage, Alexandra Wendling, Mindy F. Levin, and Anatol G. Feldman

The referent control theory (RCT) for action and perception is an advanced formulation of the equilibrium-point hypothesis. The RCT suggests that rather than directly specifying the desired motor outcome, the nervous system controls action and perception indirectly by setting the values of parameters of physical and physiological laws. This is done independently of values of kinematic and kinetic variables including electromyographic patterns describing the motor outcome. One such parameter—the threshold muscle length, λ, at which motoneurons of a given muscle begin to be recruited, has been identified experimentally. In RCT, a similar parameter, the referent arm position, R, has been defined for multiple arm muscles as the threshold arm position at which arm muscles can be quiescent but activated depending on the deflection of the actual arm position, Q, from R. Changes in R result in reciprocal changes in the activity of opposing muscle groups. We advanced the explanatory power of RCT by combining the usual biomechanical descriptions of motor actions with the identification of the timing of R underlying arm movements made with reversals in three directions and to three different extents. We found that in all movements, periods of minimization of the activity of multiple muscles could be identified at ∼61%–86% of the reaching extent in each direction. These electromyographic minimization periods reflect the spatial coordinates at which the R and Q overlap during the production of movements with reversals. The findings support the concept of the production of arm movement by shifting R.

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Masato Chijimatsu, Tomoya Ishida, Masanori Yamanaka, Shohei Taniguchi, Ryo Ueno, Ryohei Ikuta, Mina Samukawa, Takumi Ino, Satoshi Kasahara, and Harukazu Tohyama

Single-leg landings with or without subsequent jumping are frequently used to evaluate landing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subsequent jumping on the external knee abduction moment and trunk and hip biomechanics during single-leg landing. Thirty young adult female participants performed a single-leg drop vertical jumping (SDVJ; landing with subsequent jumping) and single-leg drop landing (SDL; landing without subsequent jumping). Trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were evaluated using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. The peak knee abduction moment was significantly larger during SDVJ than during SDL (SDVJ 0.08 [0.10] N·m·kg−1·m−1, SDL 0.05 [0.10] N·m·kg−1·m−1, P = .002). The trunk lateral tilt and rotation angles toward the support-leg side and external hip abduction moment were significantly larger during SDVJ than during SDL (P < .05). The difference in the peak hip abduction moment between SDVJ and SDL predicted the difference in the peak knee abduction moment (P = .003, R 2 = .252). Landing tasks with subsequent jumping would have advantages for evaluating trunk and hip control as well as knee abduction moment. In particular, evaluating hip abduction moment may be important because of its association with the knee abduction moment.

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Mary Frances Segars, Tanner M. Filben, N. Stewart Pritchard, Logan E. Miller, Christopher M. Miles, Joel D. Stitzel, and Jillian E. Urban

Soccer, one of the most popular sports in the world, has one of the highest rates of sports-related concussions. Additionally, soccer players are frequently exposed to nonconcussive impacts from intentionally heading the ball, a fundamental component of the sport. There have been many studies on head impact exposure in soccer, but few focus on soccer practices or practice activities. This study aimed to characterize the frequency and magnitude of head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer practice activities using a custom-fit instrumented mouthpiece. Sixteen players were instrumented over the course of 54 practice sessions. Video analysis was performed to verify all mouthpiece-recorded events and classify practice activities. Category groupings of practice activities include technical training, team interaction, set pieces, position-specific, and other. Differences in head impact rates and peak resultant kinematics were observed across activity types and category groupings. Technical training had the highest impact rate compared to other category groupings. Impacts occurring during set piece activities had the highest mean kinematic values. Understanding drill exposure can help inform coaches on training plans aimed to reduce head impact exposure for their athletes.

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Kento Tanaka, Yusuke Sekiguchi, Keita Honda, and Shin-ichi Izumi

Wearing loose footwear, such as slippers, poses a risk factor for tripping. Previous studies have examined obstacle crossing to find strategies to avoid tripping. However, the effect of wearing slippers on the likelihood of tripping remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether wearing slippers while level walking and obstacle crossing affects kinematic characteristics and muscle activity. Sixteen healthy, young adults performed two tasks (a) while wearing slippers and (b) while barefoot: (1) level walking and (2) crossing a 10-cm obstacle. Toe clearance, joint angles, muscle activity, and cocontraction were measured for both the leading and trailing lower limbs. In the slipper-wearing condition, knee flexion and hip flexion angles were significantly increased in the swing phase for the leading limb (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively) and trailing limb (p < .001 and p = .004, respectively) compared with the barefoot condition. Tibialis anterior activity (p = .01) and muscle cocontraction of the tibialis anterior and the medial head of the gastrocnemius (p = .047) were significantly increased in the swing phase of the trailing limb for the slipper-wearing condition compared with the barefoot condition in the obstacle crossing task. Wearing slippers increased knee and hip flexion angles, and muscle cocontraction of the tibialis anterior and medial head of gastrocnemius increased during obstacle crossing. The results revealed that obstacle crossing while wearing slippers would require foot fixation adjustment in addition to increased knee and hip flexion to avoid toe collision.

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Niels Boysen Feddersen

There has been a paucity of literature discussing how to address consent procedures as part of ethics, practitioner development, and best practice in applied sport psychology. Several researchers have addressed ethical challenges (e.g., out-of-session contact, overidentification, time, and space). However, none have substantially considered the sport-specific issues related to consent, which sits at the heart of best practice. The scarcity of discussing consent is limiting sport psychology’s potential to establish itself as a more recognized profession. This article highlights some contextual issues that challenge the idea and efficacy of informed consent. It proposes adapting consent procedures in the collaboration between sport psychology practitioners and clients to better address the current contextual challenges in applied sport psychology. In doing so, the current paper introduces Empowered Consent, which is specifically designed to empower athletes and address challenges related to choosing interventions, contractual obligations, visibility in the environment, and staff trying to gain insights into confidential information. The author offers a model to enhance applied practice for those collaborating with athletes and other clients in sport.

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Jacob R. Schlierf, Trevor S. Jaskiw, Britton W. Brewer, and Judy L. Van Raalte

Although goal setting is widely recommended for sport injury rehabilitation, little is known about the content of the goals set by athletes with injuries. Toward this end, a qualitative content analysis was performed on the goals and barriers to goal attainment identified by 163 intercollegiate student athletes (117 men and 46 women) participating in counseling interventions during sport injury rehabilitation. Most of the 956 goals set (84%) contained a physical element. A physical barrier was identified for 49% of the goals. Economic, cognitive, emotional, and social elements were noted as both goals and barriers. Goal content did not change significantly over the course of rehabilitation. Most goals were specific, process, short term, and positively phrased. The findings provide a detailed description of the types and qualities of counseling goals set by athletes during injury rehabilitation, offering professionals insight into the wide range of concerns expressed by athletes with injury during counseling.