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Changes in Hip Isometric Strength of Female College Soccer Players After High-Workload Training Session

Maxine Furtado Mesa, Jeffrey R. Stout, L. Colby Mangum, Kyle S. Beyer, Michael J. Redd, and David H. Fukuda

Context: The hip adductor and abductor muscles play vital roles as stabilizers in the lower-extremity. Their activation during soccer-specific actions is essential, but local muscular fatigue can hinder athletic performance and increase the risk of injury. Design: This study aimed to observe the variations in frontal plane hip strength in female college soccer players before and after a high-workload soccer-specific training session. Furthermore, the study sought to compare the relative changes in hip strength with the internal and external load measures obtained during that session. Methods: Twenty female college soccer players participated in a retrospective observational study. Isometric hip adductor and abductor strength were measured before and after a training session in the college spring season. Measurements were taken with a handheld dynamometer (MicroFET 2) while the players were supine. Global positioning system sensors (Catapult Vector S7), commonly worn by players during training sessions and competitive matches, were used to measure external and internal loads. Statistical analyses were performed using paired samples t test to assess hip adductor and abductor strength changes before and after the training session. Spearman rank was used to identify correlation coefficients between global positioning system data and isometric hip strength. Results: The findings revealed significant decreases in the strength of the right hip adduction (P = .012, −7% relative change), right abduction (P = .009, −7.6% relative change), and left abduction (P = .016, −4.9% relative change) after the training session. Furthermore, relative decreases in hip isometric adduction and abduction strength are related to the distance covered at high speeds. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight that hip isometric adduction and abduction strength tend to decrease after exposure to high workloads during soccer-specific training.

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Does a Hip Muscle Activation Home Exercise Program Change Movement Patterns on the Forward Step-Down Test?

Erin McCallister, Caroline Hughs, Mia Smith, and Daniel W. Flowers

Context: Poor knee biomechanics contribute to knee joint injuries. Neuromuscular control over knee position is partially derived from the hip. It is unknown whether isolated activation training of the gluteal muscles improves lower-extremity frontal plane mechanics. This study examined if a home-based hip muscle activation program improves performance on the Forward Step-Down Test as well as increases surface electromyography (sEMG) activation of the gluteal muscles. Design: The study utilized a single-group repeated-measures design. Methods: Thirty-five participants (24 females, mean age = 23.17 [SD 1.36] years) completed an 8-week hip muscle activation program. The Forward Step-Down Test score and sEMG of gluteus maximus and medius were assessed preintervention and postintervention. Results: Forward Step-Down Test scores improved significantly from preintervention (Mdn = 3.5) to postintervention (Mdn = 3.0, T = 109, P = .010, r = .31.), but this result did not meet clinical significance. sEMG analysis revealed a significant increase in mean gluteus maximus activation (P = .028, d = 1.19). No significant dose–response relationship existed between compliance and the Forward Step-Down Test scores or sEMG results. Conclusions: A home-based hip activation program increases gluteus maximus activation without clinically significant changes in frontal plane movement quality. Future studies may find clinical relevance by adding motor learning to the activation training program to improve functional muscle use.

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Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Reducing Pain and Increasing Function After Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain: A Critically Appraised Topic

Erin Frey, Christopher D. Brown, and Brady Tripp

Clinical Scenario: Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in athletics, and many lead to recurrent sprains, chronic ankle instability, and persistent symptoms. Treatment improvements are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) involves formulating autologous plasma with higher platelet concentration to be injected in the desired tissue. There is currently high-quality evidence supporting the use of PRP with lateral epicondylitis and knee osteoarthritis to accelerate the healing process and decrease pain. Clinical Question: Does the injection of PRP relieve pain faster and improve function compared with no injection or placebo in patients with a lateral ankle sprain? Summary of Key Findings: A computerized search yielded 191 studies; of these, 3 studies fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria. PRP injection reduces pain and increases function after lateral ankle sprain 5 to 8 weeks after intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: The use of PRP after lateral ankle sprain to decrease pain and increase function is supported with moderate evidence. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, evidence from the included studies is considered as level B, reflecting limited quality patient-oriented evidence.

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The Effects of Augmenting Balance Training with Stroboscopic Goggles on Postural Control in Chronic Ankle Instability Patients: A Critically Appraised Topic

Joshua S. Mohess, Hyunwook Lee, Serkan Uzlaşir, and Erik A. Wikstrom

Clinical Scenario: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) typically complete balance training protocols to improve postural control and reduce recurrent injury risk. However, the presence of CAI persists after traditional balance training protocols suggesting that such programs may be missing elements that could be beneficial to patients. Visual occlusion modalities, such as stroboscopic goggles, may be able to augment balance training exercises to further enhance postural control gains in those with CAI. However, a cumulative review of the existing evidence has yet to be conducted. Focused Clinical Question: Does wearing stroboscopic goggles during balance training result in greater improvements to postural control than balance training alone in those with CAI? Summary of Key Findings: All 3 studies indicated that the stroboscopic goggles group had statistically significant improvements in either a measure of static or dynamic postural control relative to the standard balance training group. However, significant improvements were not consistent across all postural control outcomes assessed in the included studies. Clinical Bottom Line: Postural control may improve more in those with CAI when stroboscopic goggles were worn while completing balance training exercises relative to completing balance training exercises alone. Strength of Recommendation: Overall, consistent moderate- to high-quality evidence was present in the 3 studies, suggesting grade C evidence for the use of stroboscopic goggles during balance training in those with CAI.

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Respiratory Muscle Training in Para-Athletes: A Systematic Review on the Training Protocols and Effects on Reported Outcomes

Buket Akinci, Cigdem Emirza Cilbir, Ahmet Kocyigit, and Goksen Kuran Aslan

Context and Objectives: Respiratory muscle training (RMT) is considered an effective tool to improve cardiorespiratory limitations in athletes. The goals of this systematic review were to explore the role of RMT and its implementation within sport rehabilitation programs in para-athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Several databases were searched until January 2024. Eligible studies were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Quality assessment was made using the PEDro scale and version 2 of the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for Randomized Trials. Eight studies (a total of 108 participants) were selected for the analysis. Evidence Synthesis: Five studies preferred using resistive loading, while 2 studies used normocapnic hyperpnea, and 1 study used threshold inspiratory muscle training. Respiratory functions (respiratory muscle strength and endurance, spirometry measures) and exercise performance were assessed as the main outcomes. Significant increases in respiratory muscle strength were reported in 5 studies. Two studies observed improvement in respiratory muscle endurance and 3 studies reported increased exercise capacity. Conclusions: This review suggests that although RMT can enhance respiratory muscle strength and endurance, it should not be considered the primary method for boosting the exercise performance of para-athletes. Additional research is necessary to explore the impact of various RMT techniques on different outcomes from the perspective of sport rehabilitation in para-athletes.

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Erratum. Analyzing Dual-Task Paradigms to Improve Postconcussion Assessment and Management

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Erratum. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis to Reduce Pain in Tendinopathies: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Volume 33 (2024): Issue 5 (Jul 2024)

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Field Hip Stability Isometric Test (F-HipSIT): Reliability of Assessing the Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength in Sports Settings

Felipe Xavier de Lima e Silva, João Breno de Araujo Ribeiro-Alvares, Lucas de Souza Roberti, Matheus Pitrez Mocellin, and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

Context: The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) is commonly employed in clinical settings for evaluating the hip posterolateral muscle strength. In this study, we introduced the “Field Hip Stability Isometric Test” (F-HipSIT) and assessed the intrarater and interrater reliability of this strength assessment specifically designed for sports settings. Design: Reliability study. Methods: Two independent raters (A and B) went to athletes’ training facilities to conduct 2 sessions of F-HipSIT spaced at least 1 week apart. The average peak force value from 3 valid attempts of each leg was recorded and normalized by the participant’s body mass for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty male and 30 female amateur athletes took part in this study. Rater A obtained similar values in the first (0.39 [0.05] and 0.44 [0.07] kg·f/kg) and second (0.39 [0.06] and 0.45 [0.07] kg·f/kg) testing days for men and women, respectively. Rater B also found similar values in the first (0.35 [0.06] and 0.42 [0.08] kg·f/kg) and second (0.36 [0.06] and 0.45 [0.08] kg·f/kg) testing days for men and women, respectively. Excellent intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were found for men (ICC = .922) and women (ICC = .930), with coefficient of variation of 6% to 8% and minimal detectable change of 0.06 to 0.10 kg·f/kg. The F-HipSIT presented good interrater reliability for men (ICC = .857) and women (ICC = .868), with coefficient of variation of 5% and minimal detectable change of 0.05 to 0.06 kg·f/kg. Conclusion: The F-HipSIT intrarater and interrater reliability among male and female recreational athletes supports this field test as a quick and convenient screening tool to monitor hip posterolateral muscle strength in sports settings.

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Aerobic Exercise as an Intervention for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic

Makayla Florez, Erin Roberge, and Jennifer Ostrowski

Clinical Scenario: As of 2020, the lifetime prevalence of at least one self-reported concussion is 24.6%. Athletic trainers in all settings work with patients who are at risk of sustaining a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and developing persistent postconcussive symptoms. Aerobic exercise is emerging as an intervention for decreasing symptoms in patients who have sustained mTBI; however, the majority of research has been performed on pediatric patients. It is of interest whether aerobic exercise is an effective intervention for adult patients with mTBI. Focused Clinical Question: In adults who have sustained mTBI, does traditional therapy decrease symptoms more than aerobic exercise? Summary of Search: A systematic search of 4 databases was performed to answer this question. Three randomized controlled trials were identified that compared aerobic exercise to traditional therapy, which consists of physical and cognitive rest. Two studies found no significant differences in symptoms between the 2 groups while 1 study found decreased symptoms in the aerobic exercise group. Clinical Bottom Line: The current evidence is clear that there is no decrease in mTBI symptoms with traditional therapy as compared with aerobic exercise, with 1 study showing decreased symptoms with aerobic exercise. Strength of Evidence: Based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine grades of evidence, the clinical bottom line is based on grade A evidence.