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Seungmin Kim, Jhosedyn Carolaym Salazar Fajardo, and BumChul Yoon

Context: Inappropriate activation of the anterolateral abdominal muscles affects the stability of the lumbopelvic zone and increases the appearance of pain and lesion in the area. Therefore, ways to improve its effective contraction are crucial in rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the activation of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles in 3 different pelvic positions (down pelvis [DP], horizontal pelvis [HP], and up pelvis [UP]) during sling bridge exercise (SBE) to determinate which position is more effective to promote a correct contraction of the anterolateral abdominal muscles. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Fifteen participants performed 3 variations (DP, HP, and UP) of a one-legged exercise called “supine pelvic lift” on a sling device. The thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO were recorded at rest and at the 3 positions using ultrasound imaging. Thickness, change ratio, lateral slide of TrA, and preferential and contraction activation ratio of TrA, IO, and EO were analyzed. Results: TrA and IO showed greater activation (P = .01) in the UP position than the other pelvic positions. In addition, UP position decreased the activation of the EO (P = .01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, SBE in the UP position has the potential to improve normal contraction patterns of the musculature and can be used in future intervention of the lumbopelvic zone.

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Liz Wanless and Michael L. Naraine

The purpose of this study was to analyze the diffusion of one sport innovation to forecast a second. Contextualized within the diffusion of innovations theory, this study investigated cumulative business analytics diffusion as an analog for cumulative natural language processing (NLP) diffusion in professional sport. A total of 89 teams of the 123 teams in the Big Four North American men’s professional sport leagues contributed: 21 from the National Football League, 23 from the National Basketball Association, 22 from Major League Baseball, and 23 from the National Hockey League. Utilizing an analogous forecasting approach, a discrete derivation of the Bass model was applied to cumulative BA adoption data. Parameters were then extended to predict cumulative NLP adoption. Resulting BA-estimated parameters (p = .0072, q = .3644) determined a close fit to NLP diffusion (root mean square error of approximation = 3.51, mean absolute error = 2.98), thereby validating BA to predict the takeoff and full adoption of NLP. This study illuminates an ongoing and isomorphic process for diffusion of innovations in the professional sport social system and generates a novel application of diffusion of innovations theory to the sport industry.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.

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Tamara R. Cohen, Brent Rosenstein, Amanda Rizk, Stephane Frenette, and Maryse Fortin

Context: Measures of side-to-side asymmetry in body composition may help identify players who are predisposed to lower limb injuries (LLI) or lower back pain (LBP). This study aimed to examine (1) side-to-side asymmetry in college rugby players according to sex and position and (2) whether side-to-side asymmetry is associated with LBP or LLI. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty-six rugby players (61% female) underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment for total and regional (appendicular, truncal) outcomes of fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass. A subsample (n = 23) of players had a second dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment 2 months postbaseline. Two-way analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of position (forward and backs) and sex on body composition asymmetry. Student paired t tests were used to assess side-to-side difference in body composition and compare baseline and follow-up measures. Logistic regression was used to assess possible associations between LLI, LBP, and the degree of side-to-side asymmetry in body composition. Results: Male players had greater asymmetry in arm bone mass compared with female players (P = .026), and trunk fat mass asymmetry was greater in forwards as compared with backs (P = .017). Forwards had significantly greater fat mass (P = .004) and percentage of fat (P = .048) on the right leg compared with the left. Backs had significantly greater bone mass in the right arm compared with the left (P = .015). From baseline to postseason, forwards had a significant increase in side-to-side asymmetry in arm lean mass (P = .006) and a significant decrease in side-to-side asymmetry in leg fat mass (P = .032). In backs, side-to-side asymmetry at baseline compared with postseason was significantly different (P = .011) for trunk fat mass. There were no significant associations between body composition asymmetry, LLI, or LBP by sex or position. Conclusion: Our results revealed the presence of side-to-side asymmetries in body composition in university rugby players between sex and position. The amount of asymmetry, however, was not associated with LBP and LLI.

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Kristin Manz, Alexander Burchartz, Claudia Niessner, Simon Kolb, Anja Schienkiewitz, and Gert B.M. Mensink

Background: Incomplete data due to nonparticipation and noncompliance with the study protocol can bias the results of studies. We investigated how a nationwide accelerometer sample of adolescents and young adults is affected by such incomplete data. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6465 participants (11–31 y old) who participated in a national health survey in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2; 2014–2017). The data included information about the participation in the measurement of physical activity using accelerometers, compliance with the wear-time protocol, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to detect factors associated with incomplete data. Results: Of the total sample, 78.0% participated in the accelerometer part of the study, and 83.5% of the participants with data available complied with the wear-time protocol. In 11- to 17-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in boys, older adolescents, adolescents with a lower sociodemographic status, adolescents with overweight, adolescents not participating in organized sport, adolescents not speaking only German at home, current smokers, and adolescents having a higher soft drink consumption. In 18- to 31-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in men, adults with a lower educational level, adults not speaking only German at home, and adults who smoke. Conclusions: Our results suggest that accelerometer samples are biased such that participants with more beneficial health behaviors provide complete accelerometer data more often. This knowledge should be used to design effective recruitment strategies and should be considered when interpreting results of accelerometer studies.

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Brantley K. Ballenger, Emma E. Schultz, Melody Dale, Bo Fernhall, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

This systematic review examined whether physical activity interventions improve health outcomes in adults with Down syndrome (DS). We searched PubMed, APA PsycInfo, SPORTDiscus, APA PsycARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection using keywords related to DS and physical activity. We included 35 studies published in English since January 1, 1990. Modes of exercise training programs included aerobic exercise, strength training, combined aerobic and strength training, aquatic, sport and gaming, and aerobic and strength exercise interventions combined with health education. The evidence base indicates that aerobic and strength exercise training improve physical fitness variables including maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, upper and lower body strength, body weight, and body fat percentage. Sport and gaming interventions improve functional mobility, work task performance, and sport skill performance. We concluded that adults with DS can accrue health benefits from properly designed physical activity and exercise interventions.