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Liz Wanless and Michael L. Naraine

The purpose of this study was to analyze the diffusion of one sport innovation to forecast a second. Contextualized within the diffusion of innovations theory, this study investigated cumulative business analytics diffusion as an analog for cumulative natural language processing (NLP) diffusion in professional sport. A total of 89 teams of the 123 teams in the Big Four North American men’s professional sport leagues contributed: 21 from the National Football League, 23 from the National Basketball Association, 22 from Major League Baseball, and 23 from the National Hockey League. Utilizing an analogous forecasting approach, a discrete derivation of the Bass model was applied to cumulative BA adoption data. Parameters were then extended to predict cumulative NLP adoption. Resulting BA-estimated parameters (p = .0072, q = .3644) determined a close fit to NLP diffusion (root mean square error of approximation = 3.51, mean absolute error = 2.98), thereby validating BA to predict the takeoff and full adoption of NLP. This study illuminates an ongoing and isomorphic process for diffusion of innovations in the professional sport social system and generates a novel application of diffusion of innovations theory to the sport industry.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.

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Kristin Manz, Alexander Burchartz, Claudia Niessner, Simon Kolb, Anja Schienkiewitz, and Gert B.M. Mensink

Background: Incomplete data due to nonparticipation and noncompliance with the study protocol can bias the results of studies. We investigated how a nationwide accelerometer sample of adolescents and young adults is affected by such incomplete data. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6465 participants (11–31 y old) who participated in a national health survey in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2; 2014–2017). The data included information about the participation in the measurement of physical activity using accelerometers, compliance with the wear-time protocol, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to detect factors associated with incomplete data. Results: Of the total sample, 78.0% participated in the accelerometer part of the study, and 83.5% of the participants with data available complied with the wear-time protocol. In 11- to 17-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in boys, older adolescents, adolescents with a lower sociodemographic status, adolescents with overweight, adolescents not participating in organized sport, adolescents not speaking only German at home, current smokers, and adolescents having a higher soft drink consumption. In 18- to 31-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in men, adults with a lower educational level, adults not speaking only German at home, and adults who smoke. Conclusions: Our results suggest that accelerometer samples are biased such that participants with more beneficial health behaviors provide complete accelerometer data more often. This knowledge should be used to design effective recruitment strategies and should be considered when interpreting results of accelerometer studies.

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Claudia Benavides-Espinoza

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