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Toshiaki Soga, Taspol Keerasomboon, Kei Akiyama, and Norikazu Hirose

Context: This study aimed to examine the differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles, break-point angle (BPA), and the angle at peak BFlh EMG activity between bilateral and unilateral Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) on a sloped platform. Design: This study was designed as a case-control study. Methods: Fourteen men participated in the study. The participants initially performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) on the prone leg curl to normalize the peak hamstring EMG amplitude as the %MVIC. Then, participants were randomized to perform the following 3 variations of NHE: bilateral (N40) or unilateral (N40U) NHE with a platform angle of 40°, and unilateral NHE with a platform angle of 50° (N50U). The EMG activities of the BFlh and ST and the knee flexion angle during the NHE variations were recorded to calculate the EMG activity of the BFlh and ST in terms of the %MVIC, the angle at peak BFlh EMG, and BPA. Results: The BFlh %MVIC was significantly higher in N40U (P < .05) and N50U (P < .05) than in N40. A significant difference in BFlh %MVIC and ST %MVIC was observed between N40U (P < .05) and N50U (P < .05). The mean values of BPA and the angle at peak BFlh EMG were <30° for all NHE variations. Conclusions: In the late swing phase of high-speed running, BFlh showed higher EMG activity; thus, unilateral NHE may be a specific hamstring exercise for hamstring injury prevention.

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

Viscoelastic creep generated in the lumbar spine following sustained spine flexion may affect the relationship between tissue damage and perceived pain. Two processes supporting this altered relationship include altered neural feedback and inflammatory processes. Our purpose was to determine how low back mechanical pain sensitivity changes following seated lumbar spine flexion using pressure algometry in a repeated-measures, cross-sectional laboratory design. Thirty-eight participants underwent a 10-minute sustained seated maximal flexion exposure with a 40-minute standing recovery period. Pressure algometry assessed pressure pain thresholds and the perceived intensity and unpleasantness of fixed pressures. Accelerometers measured spine flexion angles, and electromyography measured muscular activity during flexion. The flexion exposure produced 4.4° (2.7°) of creep that persisted throughout the entire recovery period. The perception of low back stimulus unpleasantness was elevated immediately following the exposure, 20 minutes before a delayed increase in lumbar erector spinae muscle activity. Women reported the fixed pressures to be more intense than men. Sustained flexion had immediate consequences to the quality of mechanical stimulus perceived but did not alter pressure pain thresholds. Neural feedback and inflammation seemed unlikely mechanisms for this given the time and direction of pain sensitivity changes, leaving a postulated cortical influence.

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Eugene Tee, Jack Melbourne, Larissa Sattler, and Wayne Hing

Context: Acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is a common injury in athletes and is often associated with decreased athletic performance and, if treated poorly, can result in chronic ankle issues, such as instability. Physical performance demands, such as cutting, hopping, and landing, involved with certain sport participation suggests that the rehabilitation needs of an athlete after LAS may differ from those of the general population. Objective: To review the literature to determine the most effective rehabilitation interventions reported for athletes returning to sport after acute LAS. Evidence Acquisition: Data Sources: Databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro were searched to July 2020. Study Selection: A scoping review protocol was developed and followed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines and registered (https://osf.io/bgek3/). Study selection included published articles on rehabilitation for ankle sprain in an athletic population. Data Extraction: Parameters included athlete and sport type, age, sex, intervention investigated, outcome measures, measurement tool, and follow-up period. Data Synthesis: A qualitative synthesis for all articles was undertaken, and a quantitative subanalysis of randomized controlled trials and critical methodological appraisal was also conducted. Evidence Synthesis: A total of 37 articles were included in this review consisting of 5 systematic and 20 narrative reviews, 7 randomized controlled trials, a single-case series, case report, position statement, critically appraised topic, and descriptive study. Randomized controlled trial interventions included early dynamic training, electrotherapy, and hydrotherapy. Conclusions: Early dynamic training after acute LAS in athletes results in a shorter time to return to sport, increased functional performance, and decreased self-reported reinjury. The results of this scoping review support an early functional and dynamic rehabilitation approach when compared to passive interventions for athletes returning to sport after LAS. Despite existing research on rehabilitation of LAS in the general population, a lack of evidence exists related to athletes seeking to return to sport.

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Stephanie Wise and Jordan Bettleyon

Clinical Scenario: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper-extremity. Due to the involvement of the median nerve, long-term compression of this nerve can lead to hand dysfunction and disability that can impact work and daily life. As such, early treatment is warranted to prevent any long-term damage to the median nerve. Conservative management is utilized in those with mild to moderate CTS. Neural mobilizations can aid in the reduction of neural edema, neural mobility, and neural adhesion while improving nerve conduction. Clinical Question: Is neurodynamics effective in reducing pain and reported symptoms in those with CTS? Summary of Key Findings: Four studies were included, with 2 studies utilizing passive neural mobilizations, one study using active techniques, and one study using active neural mobilizations with splinting. All studies showed large effect size for pain, symptom severity, and physical function. Clinical Bottom Line: Neurodynamics is an effective treatment for CTS. Splinting is only effective when combined with neurodynamics. Strength of Recommendation: Level B evidence to support the use of neurodynamics for the treatment of CTS.

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Masahiro Kuniki, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Daiki Yamagiwa, and Nobuhiro Kito

Context: Core stability is important for preventing injury and improving performance. Although various tests for evaluating core stability have been reported to date, information on their relationship and the effect of gender differences is limited. This study aimed to (1) identify correlations among the 3 core stability tests and to examine the validity of each test and (2) identify gender differences in the test relationship and determine whether gender influenced test selection. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Fifty-one healthy volunteers (27 men and 24 women) participated in the study. The participants underwent the following 3 tests: Sahrmann Core Stability Test (SCST), the lumbar spine motor control tests battery (MCBT), and Y Balance Test (YBT). Each parameter was analyzed according to all parameters and gender using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Overall, there was a strong positive correlation between SCST and MCBT and moderate positive correlations between SCST and YBT and between MCBT and YBT. Conversely, gender-specific analyses revealed no significant correlations between YBT and SCST and between YBT and MCBT in women, although significantly strong correlations were found among all tests in men. Conclusion: Although these 3 tests evaluated interrelated functions and may be valid as core stability tests, the results should be carefully interpreted when performing YBT in women.

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Joshua Thomas, Thomas Murphy, Steve Tran, Samuel J. Howarth, David Starmer, and Martha Funabashi

Investigating all forces exerted on the patient’s body during high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) remains fundamental to elucidate how these may contribute to SMT’s effects. Previous conflicting findings preclude our understanding of the relationship between SMT forces acting at the clinician–patient and patient–table interfaces. This study aimed to quantify forces at the clinician–participant and participant–table interfaces during thoracic SMT in asymptnomatic adults. An experienced clinician provided a posterior to anterior SMT centered to T7 transverse processes using predetermined force–time characteristics to 40 asymptomatic volunteers (20 females; average age = 27.2 [4.9] y). Forces at the clinician–participant interface were recorded by triaxial load cells; whereas, forces at the participant–table interface were recorded by the force-sensing table technology. Preload force, total peak force, time to peak, and loading rate at each interface were analyzed descriptively. Total peak vertical forces at the clinician–participant interface averaged 532 (71) N while total peak forces at the participant–table interface averaged 658 (33) N. Forces at the participant–table interface were, on average, 1.27 (0.25) times larger than the ones at the clinician–participant interface. Larger forces at the participant–table interface compared with the ones at the clinician–participant interface during thoracic SMT are consistent with mathematical models developed to investigate thoracic impact simulating a dynamic force-deflection response.

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Lindsay Eales and Donna L. Goodwin

Trauma is pervasive, embodied, and can be perpetrated or perpetuated by researchers, educators, and practitioners, including those within adaptive physical activity (APA). In this article, we highlight the need to address trauma within APA as a matter of access and justice. We share various conceptualizations of trauma from psychiatric, embodied, anti-pathologizing, and sociopolitical perspectives. Trauma-informed practice is introduced as a framework for creating safer, more inclusive programs and services, so we can recognize the impacts of trauma and affirm those who experience it. As the first step to a multistep trauma-informed process, our aim is to raise awareness of trauma and introduce resources for enacting trauma-informed practice. We also pose difficult questions about how we, as “helping” practitioners, researchers, and educators may be perpetuating or perpetrating harm and trauma, in particular sanism, within our profession. Ultimately, we invite readers to join us in reflection and action toward anti-pathologizing trauma-informed APA.

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Viviene A. Temple

The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide crisis. It has been, and is, an extreme challenge for our health care and prevention systems, and for society as a whole. Among many facets of life, physical activity and sport has been heavily impacted. The aim of this viewpoint article is to highlight the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with an intellectual disability, with a particular focus on physical activity and Special Olympics. Specific objectives are (a) to share what the literature reveals about the impact of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of individuals with an intellectual disability, (b) to examine what is known about the impact of the pandemic on physical activity of individuals with an intellectual disability, (c) to describe Special Olympics program responses during the pandemic, and (d) to recommend areas for future research.

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Jeffrey S. Brooks, Kody R. Campbell, Wayne Allison, Andrew M. Johnson, and James P. Dickey

This study quantified head impact exposures for Canadian university football players over their varsity career. Participants included 63 players from one team that participated in a minimum of 3 seasons between 2013 and 2018. A total of 127,192 head impacts were recorded from 258 practices and 65 games. The mean (SD) number of career impacts across all positions was 2023.1 (1296.4), with an average of 37.1 (20.3) impacts per game and 7.4 (4.4) impacts per practice. The number of head impacts that players experienced during their careers increased proportionally to the number of athletic exposures (P < .001, r = .57). Linebackers and defensive and offensive linemen experienced significantly more head impacts than defensive backs, quarterbacks, and wide receivers (P ≤ .014). Seniority did not significantly affect the number of head impacts a player experienced. Mean linear acceleration increased with years of seniority within defensive backs and offensive linemen (P ≤ .01). Rotational velocity increased with years of seniority within defensive backs, defensive and offensive linemen, running backs, and wide receivers (P < .05). These data characterize career metrics of head impact exposure for Canadian university football players and provide insights to reduce head impacts through rule modifications and contact regulations.

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Sindhu Shanker and Balaram Pradhan

Yoga as a movement-based intervention is increasingly considered to improve the motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is little evidence of the effect of yoga on their motor skills. The current study aims to explore the effect of group yoga program on motor proficiency of children with ASD and feasibility of its inclusion in special schools. Forty-three children with ASD from four special schools were randomized into yoga (n = 23) and control (n = 20) group. A structured yoga program of 45 min for 12 weeks was delivered by trained yoga teachers who also tracked their daily responses. The Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Second Edition was used to assess both the groups pre- and postintervention. In conclusion, the study highlighted that yoga appears to have a positive impact on the gross motor rather than fine motor proficiency of children with ASD and is feasible to be delivered as group intervention in special schools.