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Vera Moniz-Pereira, Thaís Ferreira Silva, Eduardo B. Cruz, and Filomena Carnide

This study aims to perform the cross-cultural adaptation to European Portuguese of the Composite Physical Function Scale and to assess its validity and reliability in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. The scale was translated into European Portuguese, back translated, and piloted in a sample of 16 representative individuals. Its validity and reliability were tested in an independent sample of 114 community-dwelling older adults (52 were tested twice to assess test–retest reliability). The results showed that the scale had good internal consistency (α = .90), construct validity (ρ = .71) and measurement error (78.8% agreement), and excellent test–retest reliability (κ = .98). However, a ceiling effect was found as 28% of the participants achieved the highest possible score. Although the scale has good measurement properties, the presence of ceiling effects is indicative that this tool is not able to distinguish higher levels of intrinsic capacity within community-dwelling older adults.

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Yves Paul Vincent Mbous, Rowida Mohamed, and Ruchi Bhandari

Purpose: In light of the known benefits of physical activity (PA) for cancer survivors, this exploratory study sought to investigate the uptake of PA among this population in the United States. Methods: Using the National Health Interview Survey data from 2009 to 2018, lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, and lymphoma cancer survivors were identified, and their PA adherence measured per the standards of the American College of Sports Medicine. Logistic regression and the Fairlie decomposition were used, respectively, to identify correlates of PA and to explain the difference in PA adherence between races. Results: Uptake of PA was significantly different between Whites and minorities. Blacks had lower odds than Whites (adjusted odds ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–0.93), whereas Mixed Race had twice the odds of Whites (adjusted odds ratio: 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.27–0.98) of adhering to PA recommendations. Decomposition identified education, family income-to-poverty ratio, body mass index, number of chronic conditions, alcohol use, and general health as key factors accounting for the PA disparity between cancer survivors of White and Black or Multiple/Mixed racial group. Conclusion: These findings could help inform behavioral PA interventions to improve their design and targeting to different racial groups of cancer survivors.

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Jenny L. Olson, Michael Robertson, Minxing Chen, David E. Conroy, Kathryn H. Schmitz, and Scherezade K. Mama

Background: Rural cancer survivors face a greater number of health disparities, including poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), than urban cancer survivors. Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors also varies between rural and urban cancer survivors. Lifestyle behaviors can improve HRQoL; however, the combination of behaviors most important for HRQoL in rural survivors is unclear. This study examined clusters of lifestyle behaviors in rural cancer survivors, and differences in HRQoL between behavioral clusters. Methods: Rural cancer survivors in the United States (N = 219) completed a cross-sectional survey. Lifestyle behaviors were classified into unhealthy/healthy binary categories (inactive/active, longer/shorter sedentary time, excessive/acceptable fat intake, very low/higher fruit and vegetable intake, some/no alcohol consumption, and poor/good sleep quality). Behavioral clusters were identified by latent class analysis. HRQoL differences between behavioral clusters were assessed by ordinary least squares regression. Results: The 2-class model demonstrated the best fit and interpretability. The “mostly unhealthy behaviors” class (38.5% of sample) had higher probabilities of all unhealthy behaviors, except alcohol consumption. The “healthier energy balance” class (61.5% of sample) had higher probabilities of active, shorter sedentary, higher fruit and vegetable consumption, excessive fat intake, some alcohol consumption, and poor sleep categories, and reported better HRQoL. Conclusions: Healthier energy balance behaviors were particularly relevant for HRQoL in rural cancer survivors. Multiple behavior change interventions to improve HRQoL in rural cancer survivors should focus on supporting energy balance behaviors. Many rural cancer survivors may lead very unhealthy lifestyles, placing them at high risk of adverse outcomes. This subpopulation should be prioritized to help alleviate cancer health disparities.

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Maurice Douryang, Kelly J. Tsafack Nanfosso, and Yagaï Bouba

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Tiffany J. Chen, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Kathleen B. Watson, Janet E. Fulton, Emily N. Ussery, Eric T. Hyde, and Ken Rose

Background: Assessing awareness and knowledge of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition (Guidelines), released in 2018, is important for monitoring factors that contribute to increasing physical activity. Methods: We estimated prevalence of awareness and knowledge of the adult aerobic guideline (≥150 min/wk of moderate-intensity equivalent aerobic physical activity preferably spread out over a week) among adults (n = 3471) and of the youth aerobic guideline (≥60 min/d of mostly moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity) among a subset of parents (n = 744) from a nationwide sample of US adults in the 2019 FallStyles survey. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and other characteristics. Results: Approximately 1 in 10 US adults and parents reported being aware of the Guidelines. Only 3% of adults knew the correct adult aerobic guideline. The most common responses were “don’t know/not sure” (44%) and “30 minutes a day, 5 or more days a week” (28%). Among parents, 15% knew the youth aerobic guideline. Awareness and knowledge tended to be lower with lower education and income. Conclusions: Limited awareness and knowledge of the Guidelines suggest communication about the Guidelines could be strengthened, especially among adults with low income or education.

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Niels Boysen Feddersen

There has been a paucity of literature discussing how to address consent procedures as part of ethics, practitioner development, and best practice in applied sport psychology. Several researchers have addressed ethical challenges (e.g., out-of-session contact, overidentification, time, and space). However, none have substantially considered the sport-specific issues related to consent, which sits at the heart of best practice. The scarcity of discussing consent is limiting sport psychology’s potential to establish itself as a more recognized profession. This article highlights some contextual issues that challenge the idea and efficacy of informed consent. It proposes adapting consent procedures in the collaboration between sport psychology practitioners and clients to better address the current contextual challenges in applied sport psychology. In doing so, the current paper introduces Empowered Consent, which is specifically designed to empower athletes and address challenges related to choosing interventions, contractual obligations, visibility in the environment, and staff trying to gain insights into confidential information. The author offers a model to enhance applied practice for those collaborating with athletes and other clients in sport.