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Emma Streatch, Natasha Bruno, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Quality experiences in sport programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can promote physical and psychosocial benefits and long-term quality participation (QP). Unfortunately, children with ASD often experience sport participation barriers and, consequently, participate less in sport compared with children without disabilities. This study investigated QP priorities and strategies that could foster QP for children with ASD. Caregivers (n = 13), volunteers (n = 26), and staff (n = 14) involved in sport programming for children with ASD rated experiential elements of QP using the Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation. In addition , a two-round Delphi survey with staff (Round 1: n = 11; Round 2: n = 13) generated 22 strategies for promoting QP—each rated highly with regard to importance (5.69–6.85 on a 7-point scale). Strategies were substantiated with published research evidence. Findings informed the development of a QP tool designed to help instructors implement identified strategies in hopes of improving sport experiences for children with ASD.

Open access

Cindy H.P. Sit, Wendy Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Venus M.H. Li

Background: Following the 2019 Hong Kong Para Report Card, the 2022 Hong Kong Para Report Card aimed to provide an updated and evidence-based assessment for nine indicators related to physical activity in children and adolescents with special educational needs and to assess the results using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Methods: Using a systematic process, the best available data on nine indicators were searched from the past 10 years and were assessed by a research work group. Letter grades were assigned and considered by stakeholders and auditors. Results: Four indicators were assigned a letter grade (overall physical activity: F [mixed device-measured and self-reported data]; sedentary behaviors: D [device-measured data]; active transportation: D−; government strategies & investment: C+). SWOT analysis highlighted opportunities for facilitating children and adolescents with special educational needs to achieve health recommendations. Conclusion: There were deteriorating trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Effective, multilevel, and cross-sector interventions are recommended to promote active behavior in children and adolescents with special educational needs.

Open access

Susann Arnell, Kajsa Jerlinder, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

Background: Participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism is often conditional. However, there is a lack of methods for identifying these specific conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a Q-sort tool to map individual-specific conditions for participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism and to identify different viewpoints regarding conditions for such participation. Method: An exploratory mixed-methods design was employed to investigate the feasibility of using Q methodology and the Q-sort procedure to identify what individual-specific conditions are important for participation in physical activity for adolescents with autism. Results: The adolescents ranked the statements with varying levels of ease. Two viewpoints were identified: Autonomous participation without surprises and Enjoyment of activity in a safe social context. Conclusion: Q-sort is a feasible method for mapping conditions for participation, which can guide the development of tailored physical activity interventions.

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Charles S. Urwin, Rodney J. Snow, Dominique Condo, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Glenn D. Wadley, Lilia Convit, and Amelia J. Carr

This study compared the recommended dose of sodium citrate (SC, 500 mg/kg body mass) and sodium bicarbonate (SB, 300 mg/kg body mass) for blood alkalosis (blood [HCO3]) and gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS; number and severity). Sixteen healthy individuals ingested the supplements in a randomized, crossover design. Gelatin capsules were ingested over 15 min alongside a carbohydrate-rich meal, after which participants remained seated for forearm venous blood sample collection and completion of GIS questionnaires every 30 min for 300 min. Time-course and session value (i.e., peak and time to peak) comparisons of SC and SB supplementation were performed using linear mixed models. Peak blood [HCO3] was similar for SC (mean 34.2, 95% confidence intervals [33.4, 35.0] mmol/L) and SB (mean 33.6, 95% confidence intervals [32.8, 34.5] mmol/L, p = .308), as was delta blood [HCO3] (SC = 7.9 mmol/L; SB = 7.3 mmol/L, p = .478). Blood [HCO3] was ≥6 mmol/L above baseline from 180 to 240 min postingestion for SC, significantly later than for SB (120–180 min; p < .001). GIS were mostly minor, and peaked 80–90 min postingestion for SC, and 35–50 min postingestion for SB. There were no significant differences for the number or severity of GIS reported (p > .05 for all parameters). In summary, the recommended doses of SC and SB induce similar blood alkalosis and GIS, but with a different time course.

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins, Mark Connick, and Vincent G. Kelly

Purpose: This study examined the relationships between training workloads, game workloads, and match performance in an elite netball team. Methods: Ten elite female netball athletes were monitored over a complete season. Training and game external workloads were determined through inertial movement units and expressed as absolute PlayerLoad (PL) and change of direction (COD). Monthly workload and training efficiency index were also calculated, which used internal workloads (session rating of perceived exertion and summated heart-rate zones). Game performance was assessed through a performance analysis statistic algorithm called NetPoints. To account for the influence of team game workloads on each other, the average workload for midcourt positions (avgMC) was calculated for each game. Data for each athlete were transformed into z scores, and linear mixed modeling was used to build models to examine the relationships between workloads and game performance. Results: Monthly PL, training efficiency index PL, and avgMC PL were statistically significant (P < .05) and positively related to game PL (z = 0.20–0.35, P < .001–.02). For game COD, statistically significant positive relationships were found between monthly COD (z = 0.29 [0.11], P = .01) and avgMC COD (z = 0.21 [0.09], P = .03). The models for NetPoints found significant negative relationships with monthly PL (z = 0.46 [0.12], P < .001) and COD (z = −0.36 [0.11], P = .01). Conclusions: Higher monthly workloads are related to higher game workload; however, they are also related to decreases in match performance. Therefore, netball practitioners should consider that increases to training workload in a 4-week period prior to a game can influence game workloads and performance.

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San Hong, Jieun Yang, Donghyun Kim, and Yongho Lee

The purpose of this study was to draw consensus among an expert panel regarding essential elements of an accessible fitness center guide for people with intellectual disabilities that will enable them to engage in physical activity fully and effectively. The study was situated in the socioecological model of disability. Researchers drew expert consensus regarding the essential features of accessible guides in fitness environments. A three-round Delphi procedure was used, involving repeated circulation of the questionnaire to an expert panel (N = 33). The panel was asked to rate the importance and adequacy of 66 items regarding the accessible fitness guide. A consensus was reached regarding 43 items after three rounds. The items include 7 body-weight exercises, 2 machine exercises, 12 environment-related items, 15 exercise preparations, 4 social etiquettes, and 3 emergencies.

Open access

Christopher Byrne, Aurelien Cosnefroy, Roger Eston, Jason K.W. Lee, and Tim Noakes

Purpose: To continuously measure body core temperature (T c) throughout a mass-participation ultramarathon in subelite recreational runners to quantify T c magnitude and the influence of aerobic fitness and body fat. Methods: Twenty-three participants (19 men and 4 women; age 45 [9] y; body mass 72.0 [9.3] kg; body fat 26% [6%]; peak oxygen uptake 50 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) had gastrointestinal temperature measured during an 89-km ultramarathon. Prerace-to-postrace changes in body mass, plasma sodium, and fluid and food recall quantified body water balance. Results: In maximal environmental conditions of 26.3 °C and 53% humidity, 21 of the 23 participants finished in 10:28 (01:10) h:min while replacing 49% (27%) of sweat losses, maintaining plasma sodium (140 [3] mmol·L−1), and dehydrating by 4.1% (1.3%). Mean maximum T c was 39.0 (0.5) (range 38.2–40.1 °C) with 90% of race duration ≤39.0 °C. Mean maximum ΔT c was 1.9 (0.9) (0.9–2.7 °C) with 95% of race duration ≤2.0 °C. Over 0 to 45 km, associations between ΔT c and peak oxygen uptake (positive) and body fat (negative) were observed. Over 58 to 89 km, associations between T c and peak oxygen uptake (negative) and body fat (positive) were observed. Conclusions: Modest T c responses were observed in recreational ultramarathon runners. Runners with higher levels of aerobic fitness and lower levels of body fat demonstrated the greatest changes in T c during the first half of the race. Conversely, runners with lower levels of aerobic fitness and higher levels of body fat demonstrated the greatest absolute T c in the final third of the race.

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Charles F. Pugh, C. Martyn Beaven, Richard A. Ferguson, Matthew W. Driller, Craig D. Palmer, and Carl D. Paton

Purpose: Leading a 4-km team pursuit (TP) requires high-intensity efforts above critical power (CP) that deplete riders’ finite work capacity (W′), whereas riders following in the aerodynamic draft may experience some recovery due to reduced power demands. This study aimed to determine how rider ability and CP and W′ measures impact TP performance and the extent to which W′ can reconstitute during recovery positions in a TP race. Methods: Three TP teams, each consisting of 4 males, completed individual performance tests to determine their CP and W′. Teams were classified based on their performance level as international (INT), national (NAT), or regional (REG). Each team performed a TP on an indoor velodrome (INT: 3:49.9; NAT: 3:56.7; and REG: 4:05.4; min:s). Ergometer-based TP simulations with an open-ended interval to exhaustion were performed to measure individual ability to reconstitute W′ at 25 to 100 W below CP. Results: The INT team possessed higher CP (407 [4] W) than both NAT (381 [13] W) and REG (376 [15] W) (P < .05), whereas W′ was similar between teams (INT: 27.2 [2.8] kJ; NAT: 29.3 [2.4] kJ; and REG: 28.8 [1.6] kJ; P > .05). The INT team expended 104% (5%) of their initial W′ during the TP and possessed faster rates of recovery than NAT and REG at 25 and 50 W below CP (P < .05). Conclusions: The CP and rate of W′ reconstitution have a greater impact on TP performance than W′ magnitude and can differentiate TP performance level.