Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III
Leonardo Alex Volpato, Julio Cesar Costa, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Catiana Leila Possamai Romanzini, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini
Background: Recent statistical approaches have allowed consideration of the integrated relationships between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with different health outcomes. The present paper aimed to systematically review the literature and synthesize evidence about associations between hypothetical reallocations from SB to different PA intensities and cardiovascular risk factors in youth. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases was performed. Observational studies with a population of children and/or adolescents and based on statistical analysis that investigated the associations between time reallocations from SB to PA and cardiovascular risk factors were included. Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Level of evidence (derived from cross-sectional studies) indicated that the reallocation from SB to moderate to vigorous PA was beneficially associated with adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in youth. Reallocation from SB to light PA was not associated with the analyzed outcomes. Associations derived from longitudinal studies were mostly inconclusive. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors could be improved by increasing moderate to vigorous PA at the expense of time spent in SB in pediatric populations. Prospective studies or studies investigating the effects of reallocating sedentary bouts to PA are needed.
Eliza E. Toth, Ferenc Ihász, Roberto Ruíz-Barquín, and Attila Szabo
Older adults face numerous unfavorable functional changes caused by aging, but many exhibit resilience, which helps them cope with challenges. Physical activity is positively associated with resilience. Therefore, this systematic literature review aimed to uncover the relationships between physical activity and resilience in older adults. We have analyzed three freely and openly available databases: (a) PubMed/Medline, (b) ScienceDirect, and (c) Google Scholar, which yielded 20 eligible articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies (14) were cross-sectional, three were longitudinal, and three others used mindfulness-based or endurance-enhancing physical activity interventions. Their results revealed increased resilience even after short-duration and low-frequency interventions. Cross-sectional research results also support the positive relationship between physical activity and resilience in older adults, suggesting that the relationship might depend on exercise volume. Still, further research is needed to design interventions, understand the mechanism(s) involved in altering resilience, and maximize physical activity’s benefits in aging people.
Mariana Wingood, Amy M. Linsky, Rebekah Harris, Patricia Bamonti, Jennifer Moye, and Jonathan F. Bean
In general, COVID-19-related adaptations that transitioned in-person assessments and interventions to a virtual format were not routinely evaluated. We aimed to conduct a process evaluation to examine the impact of COVID-19-related adaptations on a behavior change intervention designed to increase exercise adherence among Veterans with mobility difficulty. We used secondary data from a nonrandomized study to complete a process evaluation examining the intervention’s reach, recruitment, fidelity, dose delivered by physical therapists, and the dose received by the 14 participating Veterans. The physical therapist delivered 95% (133/140) of the study’s 10 sessions. Sessions with the lowest delivery dose included Sessions 1 and 10 (86%; n = 12/14). The elements with the lowest dose received included using an exercise journal and developing a postintervention plan (86%; n = 12/14). Our COVID-19 adaptations allowed us to provide our intervention to the majority (67%) of eligible participants without a negative impact on fidelity, dose delivered, or dose received.
Xiaodong Zhang, Yuqian Lin, and Chengmeng Zhang
Social participation is crucial for enhancing senior’s well-being and promoting their integration into society. Using nationwide data investigated in China, this study explored the association between self-reported visual impairment, health level, and social participation among Chinese middle-aged old adults. It has been found that (a) the probability and frequency of social participation among middle-aged and older adults with self-reported vision loss were significantly lower than those without vision problems; (b) self-reported vision loss was negatively associated with self-rated health and mental health status, and both were positively associated with social participation; and (c) self-rated health and mental health played a mediating role between vision loss and social participation. The findings suggest that under the framework of active aging, universal vision screening programs and rehabilitation plans for the older adults with visual impairment are exceedingly significant to promote their participation in social activities, thereby enhancing their quality of life.
Sabrina Gomez Souffront, Angeliki M. Mavrantza, and Marcelo Bigliassi
The present study sought to investigate the effects of a self-talk intervention on free-throw performance under pressure. The experimental manipulation was designed using a video from a social media platform. Thirty male college basketball players were randomly assigned into two groups (i.e., control and experimental). The experimental protocol incorporated three trials of three free throws each. Psychophysiological stress was assessed by use of heart rate variability. The illusion of pressure was created using arena recordings of large crowds along with instructions for participants to visualize a high-pressure scenario. The results indicate that the self-talk intervention was sufficient to improve free throw shooting accuracy during the postintervention phase. Short-term heart rate variability reduced significantly for the control group and remained relatively stable for the experimental group. Self-talk appears to influence free throw accuracy during situations of psychosocial stress by inhibiting the influence of negative thoughts on peripheral physiological reactions and movement automaticity.
Inclusiveness in higher education has received increased attention, as institutions are seeking to be more proactive in meeting the needs of a diverse student body. While university departments have noted inclusive excellence as a goal for their programs, how this is realized is often unclear or difficult to assess. Equally troubling is the scarcity of ideas on how curriculum can be enhanced for transformative change, radical possibility, antiracism, and social justice. This article attempts to rectify these issues by presenting thoughts on curriculum change and program development in higher education kinesiology using a cultural equity approach.