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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Effect of Neurofeedback Training Along With Swimming Exercise on the Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Severity of Dependence, and Craving in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients

Atefeh Fadaei, Mahmoud Najafi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Mohammad Ali Tajik-Mansoury, and Mohammad Afkar

This study investigated whether neurofeedback (NFB) training and swimming exercise (Swim) would reduce the stress, anxiety, depression, severity of dependence, and cravings in patients addicted to methamphetamines. Participants were allocated randomly to four groups: control group, NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim. All groups completed the study questionnaire before and after treatment. The NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim groups reported significantly less stress, cravings, and severity of dependence than the control group. The Swim and NFB/Swim groups had significantly lower depression scores than the control group. Also, the NFB/Swim group experienced less anxiety than the control group. However, the NFB/Swim group had lower levels of stress than the Swim group, and lower levels of anxiety and severity of dependence than the NFB group. These findings suggest that NFB training along with swimming exercise was effective in managing methamphetamine-related behavioral disturbances, which may help patients to manage their cravings.

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The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Sema Gultekin Arayici and Serap Tekinsav Sutcu

Exercise addiction manifests as a behavioral compulsion where physical activity becomes excessively pursued, leading to potential harm to both physical and mental well-being, as well as interpersonal connections. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The study sample consisted of 386 regular exercisers who completed several questionnaires, including the Childhood Trauma Scale, Exercise Dependence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale. The results of the analyses revealed that basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties were significant predictors of exercise addiction symptoms, and they mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that may lead to exercise addiction and have implications for prevention and treatment. In this context, the results and limitations are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

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Integrated Marketing Communication in Football

Martin Barrett

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Social Media in Sport: Evidence-Based Perspectives

Peyton J. Stensland

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Front Office Fantasies: The Rise of Managerial Sports Media

Michael White

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Examining Ableism Through the Physical Activity Experiences of Blind and Visually Impaired Women

Lindsey E. Ball and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: This study examined how ableism influences blind and visually impaired women’s experiences accessing and engaging in exercise, physical activity, and sport. Methods: Ten women between the ages of 27 and 45 years completed a one-on-one audio-recorded virtual interview where they reflected on the meaningfulness of their exercise, physical activity, and/or sport experiences, as well as described any experiences related to direct, indirect, systemic, or internalized ableism within or when attempting to access those physical activity experiences. The interview transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The analysis resulted in the construction of 2 themes that depicted the participants’ experiences: (1) “It’s exhausting”: navigating inaccessibility and (2) “You feel like a fish out of water”: internalized ableism. Discussion: The themes highlight the participants’ experiences which were largely focused on being forced to navigate inaccessible environments which resulted in exhaustion and expressions of internalized ableism. These findings provide insight into what makes and does not make a physical activity space accessible and welcoming for blind and visually impaired adults.

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The Inducers of an Elite Male Table Tennis Player’s Emotional Experience Throughout His Career: A Single Case Study Based on the Critical-Incident Method

Oriane Petiot, Gilles Kermarrec, Jérôme Visioli, and Guillaume Martin

Despite a growing interest in emotions in sport psychology, little has been written about the contextual elements triggering athletes’ emotional experience. This single case study aimed to analyze the inducers of an elite table tennis player’s emotional experience throughout his career. He was ranked among the 15 best players in the world, and his career spanned more than 20 years. Inspired by the critical-incident method, we conducted a lengthy interview with the player, during which he related the most significant moments of his career. The categorization of the 96 critical incidents collected highlighted four inducers of positive emotions and five inducers of negative emotions, emerging over five periods (exponential progression, first difficulties, major difficulties, second career, and end of career). These findings contribute to the development of an innovative single-case-study design, allowing an understanding of the contextual origin of athletes’ emotions over the long term. Finally, highlights are discussed and recommendations for the practice of sport psychology are formulated.

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Barriers to Participation in Organized Physical Activity Among LGBTQ+ Youth: Differences by Sexual, Gender, and Racial Identities

Benjamin Parchem, Jonathan Poquiz, Ryan L. Rahm-Knigge, Elizabeth Panetta, Ryan J. Watson, and G. Nic Rider

Background: LGBTQ+ youth engage in organized physical activity to a lesser degree than their cisgender and heterosexual counterparts. Existing literature on this organized physical activity disparity is limited, particularly with LGBTQ+ youth samples. The current analysis examined individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity for LGBTQ+ youth across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Methods: A subsample of LGBTQ+ students (N = 4566) from the 2021 Dane County Youth Assessment completed items that measured barriers to organized physical activity and systemic factors (ie, family money problems and bias-based bullying) associated with access to organized physical activity. Latent class analysis discerned patterns of individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity. Latent class regression modeling tested gender, sexual, and racial identities as correlates of latent class membership. Results: More than half of the sample did not participate in organized physical activity. Four profiles of LGBTQ+ youth were discerned based on self-reported barriers: high barrier (8%), bullied (16%), low interest or perceived skills (28%), and low barrier (48%). The low-barrier class included a greater proportion of LGBTQ+ youth who identified as White, or cisgender, or heterosexual as well as youth self-reporting higher organized physical activity. The high-barrier and bullied classes comprised more marginalized gender and sexual identities. Conclusions: LGBTQ+ youth experience individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity, including inequitable access and bullying, and barriers are uniquely experienced across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Physical activity promotion among LGBTQ+ youth would be strengthened by policies that address inequitable access to opportunities and bias-based bullying.

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The Role of Physical Literacy in the Association Between Weather and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis With 951 Children

Johannes Carl, Paulina S. Melby, Mette L. Kurtzhals, Glen Nielsen, Peter Bentsen, and Peter Elsborg

Background: Numerous studies showed an effect of weather on physical activity (PA) levels in children. However, no study has yet examined the relevance of personal factors in this relationship. Therefore, this study analyzes (1) whether there are systematic interindividual differences in the extent to which weather affects the PA behavior and (2) whether physical literacy (PL) moderates the weather–PA association in children. Methods: A total of 951 children in 12 Danish schools (age 9.76 [1.59] y; 54.3% girls) completed objective PA assessments via accelerometry (moderate to vigorous PA, light PA, and sedentary behavior). Local weather data (precipitation, wind speed, temperature, and sunshine duration) were provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute. Participants’ PL was measured employing the Danish version of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy-2. The 4116 accelerometer days underwent longitudinal multilevel analyses while considering their nesting into pupils and school classes (n = 51). Results: Fluctuations in all PA indicators were significantly explained by variations in weather conditions, especially precipitation (P ≤ .035). Significant interindividual differences were found for 9 of 12 analytical dimensions, suggesting that weather changes influence PA behavior differently across individuals (especially moderate to vigorous PA, χ2[4] ≥ 11.5, P ≤ .021). However, PL moderated the relationship between weather and PA in only 2 of the 48 analytical constellations. Conclusions: Despite the varying impact of weather on PA across individuals, the present study favors a main effect model in which weather and PL exert independent effects on children’s PA. The insufficient support for PL as a moderating factor calls for future studies to test alternative mechanisms in the weather–PA association.