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After-School Activities of Japanese Elementary School Children: Comparison of Children Who Attend Lessons and Cram Schools With Those Who Do Not

Yasuo Kojima

Background: This study examined the after-school activities of Japanese elementary school children in which little information is available for understanding the process by which participation in organized activities leads to the decrease in children’s independent mobility. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four mothers of elementary school children participated in an online survey. The mothers responded to the questions on the number of lessons (or cram schools) their children attended weekdays, as well as their children’s behavior after classes, and parents providing transportation when their children go out to play. Results: The proportion of children attending lessons and/or cram schools increased as their grades progressed. A significant interaction existed between the degree of parental transportation and grade in terms of whether or not the children attended lessons and/or cram schools. Parental involvement included pick up or drop-off for a large percentage of younger children without lessons, whereas the degree of parental involvement was greater for older children attending lessons. In other words, parents of children without attending lessons or cram schools tended to allow children to engage in independent activities when they reached the higher grades, whereas parents of children who frequently attended lessons and cram schools tended to remain involved in transporting their children, even when they reached the higher grades. Conclusions: The results suggested that the participation of children in organized activities leads to a routine of parental pickup and/or drop-off, which renders difficult the facilitation of opportunities for children to independently participate in play activities.

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Erratum. Quantifying Area-Level Physical Activity Offerings in Social Context: A Novel Concept That Goes Beyond Walkability and Access to Open Spaces

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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The KID Study (Kids Interacting With Dogs): Piloting a Novel Approach for Measuring Dog-Facilitated Youth Physical Activity

Colleen J. Chase, Sarah Burkart, and Katie Potter

Background: Two-thirds of children in the United States do not meet the National Physical Activity Guidelines, leaving a majority at higher risk for negative health outcomes. Novel, effective children’s physical activity (PA) interventions are urgently needed. Dog-facilitated PA (e.g., dog walking and active play) is a promising intervention target, as dogs support many of the known correlates of children’s PA. There is a need for accurate methods of quantifying dog-facilitated PA. Purpose: The study purpose was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a novel method for quantifying the volume and intensity of dog-facilitated PA among dog-owning children. Methods: Children and their dog(s) wore ActiGraph accelerometers with a Bluetooth proximity feature for 7 days. Additionally, parents logged child PA with the family dog(s). Total minutes of dog-facilitated PA and percentage of overall daily moderate to vigorous PA performed with the dog were calculated. Results: Twelve children (mean age = 7.8 ± 2.9 years) participated. There was high feasibility, with 100% retention, valid device data (at least 4 days ≥6-hr wear time), and completion of daily parent log and questionnaire packets. On average, dog-facilitated PA contributed 22.9% (9.2 min) and 15.1% (7.3 min) of the overall daily moderate to vigorous PA for children according to Bluetooth proximity data and parent report, respectively. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing an accelerometer with a proximity feature to quantify dog-facilitated PA. Future research should use this protocol with a larger, more diverse sample to determine whether dog-facilitated PA contributes a clinically significant amount toward overall PA in dog-owning youth.

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Physical Behavior Profiles Among Older Adults and Their Associations With Physical Capacity and Life-Space Mobility

Lotta Palmberg, Antti Löppönen, Matti Hyvärinen, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Timo Rantalainen, and Laura Karavirta

We identified data-driven multidimensional physical activity (PA) profiles using several novel accelerometer-derived metrics. Participants aged 75, 80, and 85 (n = 441) wore triaxial accelerometers for 3–7 days. PA profiles were formed with k-means cluster analysis based on PA minutes, intensity, fragmentation, sit-to-stand transitions, and gait bouts for men and women. Associations with physical capacity and life-space mobility were examined using age-adjusted general linear models. Three profiles emerged: “Exercisers” and “actives” accumulated relatively high PA minutes, with actives engaging in lighter intensity PA. “Inactives” had the highest activity fragmentation and lowest PA volume, intensity, and gait bouts. Inactives showed lower scores in physical capacity and life-space mobility compared with exercisers and actives. Exercisers and actives had similar physical capacity and life-space mobility, except female exercisers had higher walking speed in the 6-min walk test. Our findings demonstrate the importance of assessing PA as multidimensional behavior rather than focusing on a single metric.

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Policy and Advocacy in Physical Education: Looking Back, Looking Forward

Risto Marttinen and Aaron Beighle

In this paper, we provide an overview of physical education (PE) policy and advocacy research in the United States. We examine the past policy and advocacy work that has been completed in the field and make connections to international policy work. We examine the potential changes the future holds for developing scholarship in the area. We define policy and advocacy and explain how teachers as policy actors are key figures in any policy enacted. The paper also examines the relationship between PE and the public health arena, which completes a lot of PE-focused policy research. The paper concludes with a focus on PE teacher education and the work that higher education must do to help educate future professionals to be advocates for policy change.

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Comparison of Sleep and Physical Activity Metrics From Wrist-Worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT and GT9X Accelerometers During Free-Living in Adults

Duncan S. Buchan

Background: ActiGraph accelerometers can monitor sleep and physical activity (PA) during free-living, but there is a need to confirm agreement in outcomes between different models. Methods: Sleep and PA metrics from two ActiGraphs were compared after participants (N = 30) wore a GT9X and wGT3X-BT on their nondominant wrist for 7 days during free-living. PA metrics including total steps, counts, average acceleration—Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation, intensity gradient, the minimum acceleration value of the most active 10 and 30 min (M10, M30), time spent in activity intensities from vector magnitude (VM) counts, and ENMO cut points and sleep metrics (sleep period time window, sleep duration, sleep onset, and waking time) were compared. Results: Excellent agreement was evident for average acceleration-Mean Amplitude Deviation, counts, total steps, M10, and light PA (VM counts) with good agreement evident from the remaining PA metrics apart from moderate–vigorous PA (VM counts) which demonstrated moderate agreement. Mean bias for all PA metrics were low, as were the limits of agreement for the intensity gradient, average acceleration-Mean Amplitude Deviation, and inactive time (ENMO and VM counts). The limits of agreement for all other PA metrics were >10%. Excellent agreement, low mean bias, and narrow limits of agreement were evident for all sleep metrics. All sleep and PA metrics demonstrated equivalence (equivalence zone of ≤10%) apart from moderate–vigorous PA (ENMO) which needed an equivalence zone of 16%. Conclusions: Equivalent estimates of almost all PA and sleep metrics are provided from the GT9X and wGT3X-BT worn on the nondominant wrist.

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Erratum. “Teaching to Transgress”: Race and a Pedagogy of Empowerment in Kinesiology

Kinesiology Review

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SKIPping With PAX: Evaluating the Effects of a Dual-Component Intervention on Gross Motor Skill and Social–Emotional Development

Ali Brian, Emily E. Munn, T. Cade Abrams, Layne Case, Sally Taunton Miedema, Alexandra Stribing, Unjong Lee, and Stephen Griffin

Improving the development of the social, emotional, and physical domains during early childhood impacts the overall trajectory of a child’s well-being. However, researchers often address these independently, leaving a gap for a more integrated approach to promoting development. This study explores the effects of a dual-component intervention on changes in preschool-aged boys’ and girls’ gross motor and social–emotional skills. Preschoolers (N = 475; girls = 220 and boys = 255) ages 3–6 years completed the 9-month dual-component intervention and were randomized into control (n = 148) or intervention (n = 327) groups by classroom. Significant improvements were observed in social skills, locomotor, and total Test of Gross Motor Development-3. Additionally, boys and girls improved at the same rate in ball skills, locomotor, and total Test of Gross Motor Development-3. These results suggest that the dual-component intervention can improve preschoolers’ social skills and motor skills with no differential effects.

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Decadal Trends in Physical Activity Adherence Among Korean Older Adults: An Analysis of National Survey of Older Korean Data, 2011–2020

Joonyoung Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Hyunyoung Lee, and Jung Hoon Huh

Background/Objectives: This study investigated adherence to physical activity (PA) guidelines and associated sociodemographic factors among older Koreans from 2011 to 2020. Methods: Utilizing four public data sets from the National Survey of Older Koreans, the study included the data on 40,993 older adults 65 years and older in South Korea, collected between 2011 and 2020. Adherence to PA guidelines and sociodemographic factors were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results: Overall adherence increased from 39.1% in 2011 to 48.2% in 2017, then decreased to 37.6% in 2020 (p < .001). Men had higher adherence than women (p < .001). Age-related adherence peaked in the young-older group (65–74 years old) and was lowest in the oldest-old group (85+ years old) (p < .001). Marital status, education, and income were also significantly related to PA adherence (p < .001) across the years. Conclusion: Although continuous increase in adherence to PA among Koreans 65 years and older was observed, the decline in PA levels during the COVID era underscored the need for targeted interventions and well-informed health care policies to address demographic challenges. Still, considering that data were collected during the recommended social distancing period, a cautions interpretation of these findings is warranted. Significance/Implications: Health policies aiming to improve adherence to PA guidelines should prioritize Korean older adults who are female, belong to the oldest-old group, are single, and have low education and income levels, with the goal of enhancing health equity.

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Single- Versus Double-Leg Cycling: Small Muscle Mass Exercise Improves Exercise Capacity to a Greater Extent in Older Compared With Younger Population

Toni Haddad, Angela L. Spence, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Gregory M. Blain, Jeanick Brisswalter, and Chris R. Abbiss

Manipulating the amount of muscle mass engaged during exercise can noninvasively inform the contribution of central cardiovascular and peripheral vascular-oxidative functions to endurance performance. To better understand the factors contributing to exercise limitation in older and younger individuals, exercise performance was assessed during single-leg and double-leg cycling. 16 older (67 ± 5 years) and 14 younger (35 ± 5 years) individuals performed a maximal exercise using single-leg and double-leg cycling. The ratio of single-leg to double-leg cycling power (RatioPower SL/DL) was compared between age groups. The association between fitness (peak oxygen consumption, peak power output, and physical activity levels) and RatioPower SL/DL was explored. The RatioPower SL/DL was greater in older compared with younger individuals (1.14 ± 0.11 vs. 1.06 ± 0.08, p = .041). The RatioPower SL/DL was correlated with peak oxygen consumption (r = .886, p < .001), peak power output relative to body mass (r = .854, p < .001), and levels of physical activity (r = .728, p = .003) in the younger but not older subgroup. Reducing the amount of muscle mass engaged during exercise improved exercise capacity to a greater extent in older versus younger population and may reflect a greater reduction in central cardiovascular function compared with peripheral vascular-oxidative function with aging.