Background: Structured physical activity (PA) interventions (ie, intentionally planned) can be implemented in a variety of facilities, and therefore can reach a large proportion of the population. The aim of the authors was to summarize the effectiveness of structured interventions upon PA outcomes, in addition to proportions of individuals adopting and maintaining PA, and adherence and retention rates. Methods: Systematic review with narrative synthesis and exploratory meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included. Results: Effectiveness on PA levels during adoption (pre- to first time point) showed a trivial standardized effect (0.15 [−0.06 to 0.36]); during maintenance (any time point after the first and >6 mo since initiation) the standardized effect was also trivial with a wide interval estimate (0.19 [−0.68 to 1.07]). Few studies reported adoption (k = 3) or maintenance rates (k = 2). Retention at follow-up did not differ between structured PA or controls (75.1% [65.0%–83.0%] vs 75.4% [67.0%–82.3%]), nor did intervention adherence (63.0% [55.6%–69.6%] vs 77.8% [19.4%–98.1%]). Conclusion: Structured PA interventions lack evidence for effectiveness in improving PA levels. Furthermore, though retention is often reported and is similar between interventions and controls, adoption, maintenance, and adherence rates were rarely reported rendering difficulty in interpreting results of effectiveness of structured PA interventions.
Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton
Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan
Inhibitory control may be vital in elite sport. The authors examined the link between athletic expertise, inhibitory control, and sport performance in a two-part quasi experiment. Inhibitory control was indexed using the Stop-Signal Task, athlete expertise was categorized on literary recommendations, and sport performance was assessed using athlete and coach ratings. Study 1 examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of inhibitory control across athletic expertise. Study 2 investigated whether the inhibitory control–sport performance relationship was moderated by expertise. Study 1 showed that expertise was linked to greater inhibitory control cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Study 2 revealed that expertise was related to superior performance on the Stop-Signal Task and athlete and coach performance ratings, and this relationship was moderated by athletic expertise. Inhibitory control relates to sport performance, increases with greater athlete expertise, and develops longitudinally. Long-term participation in sport may bring about changes in inhibitory control, which may lead to improved sport performance.
This study aimed to explore older adults’ experience with an in-home Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram and explore whether the Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention influenced their physical activity adherence. A qualitative study approach was employed, and data were collected using exercise logs, observations, focus groups, and open-ended questions after the program completion. Nineteen participants who engaged in an 8-week Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention participated in this study. Thematic analysis was used. Three major concepts of the self-determination theory, including competence, relatedness, and autonomy, were used as guidelines for coding. Results reveal three themes, including: (a) competence-alignment of body and mind and increased awareness about fall risk, (b) relatedness-relationship with peer coach and having fun with friends, and (c) autonomy-integration of exercise into daily activities for staying physically and socially active. Individuals’ need for competence and autonomy can be supported by giving physio-feedback, cognitive reframing, and peer-led exercise, which can enhance physical activity and prevent falls.
Lisa Jasper, Lauren A. Beaupre, John C. Spence, and C. Allyson Jones
Few validated tools exist for measuring physical activity following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite the importance of returning to sufficient levels of physical activity post-TKA to achieve health benefits. This study examined the validity of two clinical measures—the Fitbit, a commercially available personal activity monitor, and the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a self-report questionnaire—compared with a reference standard accelerometer, the SenseWearTM Armband (SWA). At 6-month post-TKA, 47 participants wore the Fitbit and SWA for 4 days and then completed the CHAMPS. Moderate-to-good correlation was observed between the Fitbit and SWA for steps (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .79), energy expenditure (ICC = .78), and energy expenditure <3 METS (ICC = .79). Poor-to-moderate correlation was observed between the CHAMPS and SWA (ICC = .43) with the questionnaire reporting lower daily energy expenditures than the SWA. Results showed that Fitbit may be a reasonable measurement tool to measure steps and energy expenditures in older adults following TKA.
Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich
The authors investigated the effects of respite–active music (i.e., music used for active recovery in between high-intensity exercise bouts) on psychological and psychophysiological outcomes. Participants (N = 24) made four laboratory visits for a habituation, medium- and fast-tempo music conditions, and a no-music control. A high-intensity interval-training protocol comprising 8 × 60-s exercise bouts at 100% W max with 90-s active recovery was administered. Measures were taken at the end of exercise bouts and recovery periods (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], state attention, and core affect) and then upon cessation of the protocol (enjoyment and remembered pleasure). Heart rate was measured throughout. Medium-tempo music enhanced affective valence during exercise and recovery, while both music conditions increased dissociation (only during recovery), enjoyment, and remembered pleasure relative to control. Medium-tempo music lowered RPE relative to control, but the heart rate results were inconclusive. As predicted, medium-tempo music, in particular, had a meaningful effect on a range of psychological outcomes.
Dorthe Dalstrup Jakobsen, Jasper Schipperijn, and Jens Meldgaard Bruun
Background: In Denmark, most children are not sufficiently physically active and only a few interventions have been found to increase long-term physical activity among overweight and obese children. The aim of our study was to investigate if children are physically active in correspondence to Danish recommendations after attending a multicomponent-overnight camp. Methods: A questionnaire was developed to estimate children’s physical activity level and behavior and investigate how transport, economy, availability, time, motivation, and knowledge about physical activity affect children’s physical activity level and behavior. Results: In this study, 60.9% of the children did vigorous physical activity (VPA) minimum 30 minutes 3 times per week up to 3 years after camp. Most children were physically active at a sports club (44.3%) and only 5.7% of the children did not participate in physical activity. Parental physical activity and child motivation toward physical activity were significantly (P < .05) associated with children doing VPA. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 60.9% of children who attended camp engage in VPA after camp, which compared with a recent Danish study, is more frequent than children who did not attend camp. Further investigations are needed to determine the long-term health effects in children attending interventions such as multicomponent-overnight camps.
Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf
Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda
Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (
Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Régis Radaelli, Clarissa Muller Brusco, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Eurico N. Wilhelm, and Ronei Silveira Pinto
An increase in blood pressure (BP) occurs during resistance exercise; attention to this response may be necessary in older individuals with hypertension. We compared the BP responses following high- (HSRE) and moderate-speed resistance exercise (MSRE) (4 × 8 repetitions at 60% one-repetition maximum) and control protocol in 15 older adults with hypertension. HSRE and MSRE increased systolic BP (SBP) by the end of each set compared with preexercise and control protocol. Immediately after the fourth set, a higher SBP was observed in MSRE than HSRE (147 ± 14 vs. 141 ± 12 mmHg; p = .01). Taking an exploratory analysis of the individual response, we observed that MSRE resulted in greater mean changes and number of SBP exposures to values ≥150 mmHg (22-fold) than HSRE (10-fold). Diastolic BP increased (p < .05) with exercise, but only MSRE increased compared with the control condition (p < .05). HSRE may be an alternative for individuals in which SBP peak should be avoided.
Clarice Martins, E. Kipling Webster, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, and Amanda E. Staiano
Fundamental motor skills (FMSs) are building blocks for future movements and may vary according to cultural context. Moreover, network analysis can identify which skills contribute most to an overall set of skills. This study identified the most influential FMS in samples of U.S. and Brazil preschoolers that may contribute to a pattern of adequate motor skills. Participants were 101 Brazilian (55 boys; 47.52 ± 5.57 months of age) and 236 U.S. preschoolers (108 boys; 49.56 ± 8.27 months of age), who provided completed FMS assessments (Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition). Confirmatory factorial analysis was used to test alternative models. To quantify the importance of each variable in the network, the expected influence was calculated, using the network analysis Mplus, Rstudio, and JASP (version 0.14.1). Reduced models with nine and 11 FMS for Brazilian and U.S. preschoolers, respectively, showed adequate adjustment indexes. Jump (1.412) and one-hand strike (0.982) in the Brazilian sample, and hop (1.927) and dribble (0.858) in the U.S. sample, showed the highest expected influence values. This study presents a new perspective to report which are the most important FMS in preschoolers of different sociocultural contexts, which act as building blocks for the acquisition of more complex motor skills.