Marco Giurgiu, Carina Nigg, Janis Fiedler, Irina Timm, Ellen Rulf, Johannes B.J. Bussmann, Claudio R. Nigg, Alexander Woll, and Ulrich W. Ebner-Priemer
Purpose: To raise attention to the quality of published validation protocols while comparing (in)consistencies and providing an overview on wearables, and whether they show promise or not. Methods: Searches from five electronic databases were included concerning the following eligibility criteria: (a) laboratory conditions with humans (<18 years), (b) device outcome must belong to one dimension of the 24-hr physical behavior construct (i.e., intensity, posture/activity type outcomes, biological state), (c) must include a criterion measure, and (d) published in a peer-reviewed English language journal between 1980 and 2021. Results: Out of 13,285 unique search results, 123 articles were included. In 86 studies, children <13 years were recruited, whereas in 26 studies adolescents (13–18 years) were recruited. Most studies (73.2%) validated an intensity outcome such as energy expenditure; only 20.3% and 13.8% of studies validated biological state or posture/activity type outcomes, respectively. We identified 14 wearables that had been used to validate outcomes from two or three different dimensions. Most (n = 72) of the identified 88 wearables were only validated once. Risk of bias assessment resulted in 7.3% of studies being classified as “low risk,” 28.5% as “some concerns,” and 71.5% as “high risk.” Conclusion: Overall, laboratory validation studies of wearables are characterized by low methodological quality, large variability in design, and a focus on intensity. No identified wearable provides valid results across all three dimensions of the 24-hr physical behavior construct. Future research should more strongly aim at biological state and posture/activity type outcomes, and strive for standardized protocols embedded in a validation framework.
Jeong Ah Kim, Sungwoo Park, Linda Fetters, Sandrah P. Eckel, Masayoshi Kubo, and Barbara Sargent
This study quantified the spatial exploration of 13 infants born very and extremely preterm (PT) at 4 months corrected age as they learned that moving their feet vertically to cross a virtual threshold activated an infant kick-activated mobile and compared results to 15 infants born full-term (FT) from a previously published study. Spatial exploration was quantified using two general spatial exploration variables (exploration volume and exploration path), two task-specific spatial variables (duration of time in the task-specific region of interest and vertical variance of kicks), and one non-task-specific spatial variable (horizontal variance of kicks). The infants born PT, similar to FT, increased their general spatial exploration and duration in the region of interest and did not change the vertical and horizontal variances of kicks. However, the infants born PT, compared to FT, spent less time in the task-specific region of interest and had a greater non-task-specific horizontal variance throughout the task. This may indicate that infants born PT and FT exhibit similar general spatial exploration, but infants born PT exhibit less task-specific spatial exploration. Future research is necessary to determine the contribution of learning and motor abilities to the differences in task-specific exploration between infants born PT and FT.
Alexander H.K. Montoye, Olivia Coolman, Amberly Keyes, Megan Ready, Jaedyn Shelton, Ethan Willett, and Brian C. Rider
Background: Given the popularity of thigh-worn accelerometers, it is important to understand their reliability and validity. Purpose: Our study evaluated laboratory validity and free-living intermonitor reliability of the Fibion monitor and free-living intermonitor reliability of the activPAL monitor. Free-living comparability of the Fibion and activPAL monitors was also assessed. Methods: Nineteen adult participants wore Fibion monitors on both thighs while performing 11 activities in a laboratory setting. Then, participants wore Fibion and activPAL monitors on both thighs for 3 days during waking hours. Accuracy of the Fibion monitor was determined for recognizing lying/sitting, standing, slow walking, fast walking, jogging, and cycling. For the 3-day free-living wear, outputs from the Fibion monitors were compared, with similar analyses conducted for the activPAL monitors. Finally, free-living comparability of the Fibion and activPAL monitors was determined for nonwear, sitting, standing, stepping, and cycling. Results: The Fibion monitor had an overall accuracy of 85%–89%, with high accuracy (94%–100%) for detecting prone and supine lying, sitting, and standing but some misclassification among ambulatory activities and for left-/right-side lying with standing. Intermonitor reliability was similar for the Fibion and activPAL monitors, with best reliability for sitting but poorer reliability for activities performed least often (e.g., cycling). The Fibion and activPAL monitors were not equivalent for most tested metrics. Conclusion: The Fibion monitor appears suitable for assessment of sedentary and nonsedentary waking postures, and the Fibion and activPAL monitors have comparable intermonitor reliability. However, studies using thigh-worn monitors should use the same monitor brand worn on the same leg to optimize reliability.
Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, Anuj Bhatia, Andrew Lim, and Mandeep Singh
Individuals suffering from neuropathic pain commonly report issues associated with sleep. To measure sleep in this population, researchers have used actigraphy. Historically, actigraphy data have been analyzed in the form of counts; however, due to the proprietary nature, many opt to quantify data in its raw form. Various processing techniques exist to accomplish this; however, it remains unclear how they compare to one another. This study sought to compare sleep measures derived using the GGIR R package versus the GENEActiv (GA) R Markdown tool in a neuropathic pain population. It was hypothesized that the processing techniques would yield significantly different sleep outcomes. One hundred and twelve individuals (mean age = 52.72 ± 13.01 years; 60 M) with neuropathic pain in their back and/or lower limbs were included. While simultaneously undergoing spinal cord stimulation, actigraphy devices were worn on the wrist for a minimum of 7 days (GA; 50 Hz). Upon completing the protocol, sleep outcome measures were calculated using (a) the GGIR R package and (b) the GA R Markdown tool. To compare these algorithms, paired-samples t tests and Bland–Altman plots were used to compare the total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, sleep onset time, and rise times. According to the paired-samples t test, the GA R Markdown yielded lower total sleep time and sleep efficiency and a greater wake after sleep onset, compared with the GGIR package. Furthermore, later sleep onset times and earlier rise times were reported by the GGIR package compared with the GA R Markdown.
Michael J. Rose, Michael P. LaValley, S. Reza Jafarzadeh, Kerry E. Costello, Nirali Shah, Soyoung Lee, Belinda Borrelli, Stephen P. Messier, Tuhina Neogi, and Deepak Kumar
Objective: To examine changes in physical activity, sleep, pain, and mood in people with knee osteoarthritis during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by leveraging an ongoing randomized clinical trial. Methods: Participants enrolled in a 12-month parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial (NCT03064139) interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic wore an activity monitor (Fitbit Charge 3) and filled out custom weekly surveys rating knee pain, mood, and sleep as part of the study. Data from 30 weeks of the parent study were used for this analysis. Daily step count and sleep duration were extracted from activity monitor data, and participants self-reported knee pain, positive mood, and negative mood via surveys. Metrics were averaged within each participant and then across all participants for prepandemic, stay-at-home, and reopening periods, reflecting the phased reopening in the state of Massachusetts. Results: Data from 28 participants showed small changes with inconclusive clinical significance during the stay-at-home and reopening periods compared with prepandemic for all outcomes. Summary statistics suggested substantial variability across participants with some participants showing persistent declines in physical activity during the observation period. Conclusion: Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, sleep, pain, and mood were variable across individuals with osteoarthritis. Specific reasons for this variability could not be determined. Identifying factors that could affect individuals with knee osteoarthritis who may exhibit reduced physical activity and/or worse symptoms during major lifestyle changes (such as the ongoing pandemic) is important for providing targeted health-care services and management advice toward those that could benefit from it the most.
Sarah Taylor, Bradley Fawver, Joseph L. Thomas, A. Mark Williams, and Keith R. Lohse
Contextual interference is an established phenomenon in learning research; random practice schedules are associated with poorer performance, but superior learning, compared with blocked practice schedules. We present a secondary analysis of N = 84 healthy young adults, replicating the contextual interference effect in a time estimation task. We used the determinant of a correlation matrix to measure the amount of order in participant responses. We calculated this determinant in different phase spaces: trial space, the determinant of the previous five trials (lagged constant error 0–4); and target space, the determinant of the previous five trials of the same target. In trial space, there was no significant difference between groups (p = .98) and no Group × Lag interaction (p = .54), although there was an effect of Lag (p < .01). In target space, there were effects of Group (p = .02), Lag (p < .01), and a Group × Lag interaction (p = .03). Ultimately, randomly scheduled practice was associated with adaptive corrections but positive correlations between errors from trial to trial (e.g., overshoots followed by smaller overshoots). Blocked practice was associated with more adaptive corrections but uncorrelated responses. Our findings suggest that random practice leads to the retrieval and updating of the target from memory, facilitating long-term retention and transfer.
Brian Dauenhauer, Taemin Ha, Collin Webster, Heather Erwin, Erin Centeio, Jillian Papa, and Charlene Burgeson
Background: Principals are key to the promotion of physical activity (PA) in schools. The purpose of this study was to understand how school principals’ PA values, behaviors, and individual and school characteristics were associated with the presence of an active school. Methods: A representative sample of 1019 school principals in the United States was surveyed. Survey items addressed principals’ values and behaviors associated with PA, individual and school demographic factors, such as years of experience and school level, and a single item asking whether principals perceived their school to be an active school (ie, provides students with opportunities to be physically active before, during, and after the school day). Significant variables from a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis were added to a hierarchical logistic regression model to assess the predictive properties of principal values and behaviors as they relate to the presence of an active school. Results: Approximately half of principals (47%) reported having an active school. The model significantly predicted the presence of an active school but accounted for only 6.6% of the total variance. Although values toward PA and more frequent personal PA behaviors were associated with the presence of an active school within the cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis, neither variable emerged as a significant predictor in the regression model. Conclusions: Principals’ personal PA values and behaviors contribute to the presence of an active school, but other variables, including years of experience and school contextual factors, are more powerful predictors.