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Volume 32 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 46 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Effects of Brief Mindfulness Training on Basketball Free-Throw Shooting Performance Under Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Dosage Response

Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Linda A. Keeler

Studies have indicated that as little as 15 min of mindfulness training (MT) positively affects sport performance under pressure, but the minimum amount of MT required to induce effects is unclear. The current experiment tested the effects of MT of different lengths on free-throw shooting under pressure. Forty-six participants (78% men) with competitive basketball experience completed pretest mindfulness and anxiety surveys and shot under low pressure. Using performance-based matched assignment, participants were randomly distributed into groups. On another day, participants completed audio trainings (6-min MT, 15-min MT, or control) and then shot under high pressure. Under high pressure, anxiety and mindfulness states did not differ among groups, nor were there group differences in average shooting percentage. However, only the control group performed worse on the second shot under high pressure compared with low pressure, suggesting possible protection effects of MT. Findings are discussed regarding application and possible interactions between traits, motivation, and incentive values.

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Mindfulness and Psychological Inflexibility in Portuguese Adolescent Athletes: A Novel Framework for Understanding the Link Between Shame and Sports Anxiety

Sara Margarida Simões de Oliveira, Marina Isabel Vieira Antunes Cunha, António Fernando Boleto Rosado, Mariana Saraiva, and Cláudia Rute Carlos Ferreira

This study aimed to test a comprehensive model in adolescent athletes that explores the effect of shame on sports anxiety and whether psychological inflexibility and mindfulness influence this association. The sample study included 210 young Portuguese athletes from different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 49% of the variance in sports anxiety. Results demonstrated that athletes who experienced higher levels of shame tended to exhibit elevated levels of sports anxiety through lower levels of mindfulness and higher psychological inflexibility. The study offers new empirical data that may be relevant for clinical and sport psychology practitioners. These findings seem to underline the importance of addressing shame and, consequently, sports anxiety in adolescent athletes by developing greater psychological flexibility and, inherently, more mindfulness skills among adolescent athletes who are in a phase of their lives where sport can play a crucial role.

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Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Effect of Protein Supplementation Combined With Resistance Training in Gait Speed in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Juan Li, Yahai Wang, Fang Liu, and Yu Miao

Background: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of protein supplementation and resistance training (RT), compared with RT alone or combined with a placebo, in improving gait speed. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus databases, and 18 randomized controlled trials with 1,147 older participants were included for meta-analysis. Data were pooled as the effect sizes (Hedges’ g) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of the gait speed (in meters per second). The random-effect meta-analysis, subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: The combination of protein supplementation and RT significantly improved gait speed (Hedges’ g: 0.52 m/s, 95% confidence interval [0.17, 0.86], p = .005; I 2  = 86.5%) compared with the RT alone. The subgroup analyses revealed that the significant improvement in gait speed postprotein intervention plus RT was observed only in participants who consumed protein after RT (Hedges’ g: 0.90 m/s, 95% confidence interval [0.46, 1.33], p = .001; I 2  = 79.6%). The pooled result did not significantly change after excluding any single study at one time or excluding smaller studies with large effect sizes. Conclusions: Protein supplementation combined with RT could significantly improve the gait speed of older adults compared with RT alone. This positive effect is more pronounced in people who consume protein after RT.

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“Now I Am Walking Toward Health”: A Qualitative Study About the Outcomes of Physical Activity Participation That Matter to Older Adults

Peter J. Young, Christine Wallsworth, Hitika Gosal, and Dawn C. Mackey

Background/Objectives: Randomized controlled trials that deliver physical activity interventions have demonstrated benefits for older adults across numerous health outcomes. However, too little attention has been directed to ensuring that such trials are measuring patient-relevant outcomes. To support outcome selection for future trials, the objective of this study was to understand what outcomes related to their physical activity participation older adults find important. Methods: We conducted 12 semistructured interviews with adults aged 65 years and older and analyzed interview transcripts with a reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Older adults desired diverse outcomes from their physical activity participation, ranging from generic (e.g., quality of life) to specific (e.g., leg strength). Relevant outcomes were classified under five themes: physical, clinical, social, psychological, and overarching, each with respective subthemes. Conclusions: The outcomes that older adults found important were plentiful and rooted in a desire to improve their quality of life. Some of the outcome themes have been reported frequently in past trials (e.g., physical), but others have not (e.g., social). Future researchers should be aware of, and responsive to, the priorities of older adults when designing trials and defining outcomes. Significance/Implications: This study will help to improve outcome selection for future trials of physical activity with older adults. In alignment with a patient-oriented research philosophy, this study will also ground future outcome selection in the priorities of older adults.

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Association Between Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and the Dual-Task Performance Index in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Fabiane de Oliveira Brauner, Mariana Oliveira, Daiane Oliveira Hausen, Aniuska Schiavo, Gustavo Balbinot, and Régis Gemerasca Mestriner

The Performance Index (P-Index) is a measure for evaluating mobility-related dual-task performance in older adults. The identification of specific clinicodemographic factors predictive of P-Index scores, however, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 120 community-dwelling older adults (average age 71.3 ± 11.23 years) to explore clinicodemographic variables that influence P-Index scores during the instrumented timed up and go test. Unadjusted analyses suggested several factors, including age, gender, body mass index, Mini-Mental Status Examination scores, functional reach test performance, history of falls, ethnicity, Geriatric Depression Scale scores, alcohol consumption, and educational levels, as potential predictors of P-Index. However, adjusted multinomial multiple regression analysis revealed Geriatric Depression Scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination scores as the exclusive independent predictors of P-Index classifications, segmented into high, intermediate, or low (percentiles ≤ 25, 26–74, or ≥ 75, respectively). A significant association was observed between the manifestation of depressive symptoms, lower Mini-Mental Status Examination scores, and reduced cognitive–motor performance. The findings implicate depressive symptoms and low cognitive performance as substantial impediments to optimal dual-task mobility within this cohort. Further studies are warranted to examine the efficacy of cognitive stimulation and antidepressant therapy, in augmenting mobility-related dual-task performance among older adults.

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Follow the Arrows: Using a Co-Created Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Leverage Points to Strengthen Population Physical Activity Promotion in British Columbia, Canada

Lori Baugh Littlejohns, Geoffrey McKee, Drona Rasali, Daniel Naiman, Jennafer Mee, Tanya Osborne, Phuc Dang, Meghan Winters, Scott A. Lear, Diane Nelson, Steve McGinley, and Guy Faulkner

Background: Population physical activity promotion (PPAP) is one of the most effective noncommunicable disease prevention strategies, yet coordination is lacking around the world. Whole-of-system approaches and complex systems methods are called for to advance PPAP. This paper reports on a project which (1) used an Attributes Framework with system mapping (group model building and causal loop diagramming of feedback loops) and (2) identified potential leverage points to address the challenge of effective coordination of multisectoral PPAP in British Columbia. Methods: Key findings from stakeholder interviews and workshops described the current system for PPAP in terms of attributes and dimensions in the framework. These were translated into variables and used in group model building. Participants prioritized the importance of variables to address the coordination challenge and then created causal loop diagrams in 3 small groups. One collective causal loop diagram was created, and top priority variables and associated feedback loops were highlighted to explore potential leverage points. Results: Leverage points included the relationships and feedback loops among priority variables: political leadership, visible policy support and governance, connectivity for knowledge translation, collaborative multisector grants, multisector collaboration, and integrating co-benefits. Leveraging and altering “vicious” cyclical patterns to increase coordinated multisector PPAP are key. Conclusions: The Attributes Framework, group model building and causal loop diagrams, and emergent feedback loops were useful to explore potential leverage points to address the challenge of multisectoral coordination of PPAP. Future research could apply the same methods in other jurisdictions and compare and contrast resultant frameworks, variables, feedback loops, and leverage points.