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Hamed Shahidian, Rezaul Begg, and David C. Ackland

Dual-task walking and cell phone usage, which is associated with high cognitive load and reduced situational awareness, can increase risk of a collision, a fall event, or death. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of dual-task cell phone talking, texting, and reading while walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters; minimum foot clearance; and dynamic stability of the lower limb joints, trunk, and head. Nineteen healthy male participants walked on an instrumented treadmill at their self-selected speed as well as walking while simultaneously (1) reading on a cell phone, (2) texting, and (3) talking on a cell phone. Gait analyses were performed using an optical motion analysis system, and dynamic stability was calculated using the Maximum Lyapunov Exponent. Dual-task cell phone usage had a significant destabilizing influence on the lower limb joints during walking. Cell phone talking while walking significantly increased step width and length and decreased minimum foot clearance height (P < .05). The findings suggest that dual-task walking and cell phone conversation may present a greater risk of a fall event than texting or reading. This may be due to the requirements for more rapid information processing and cognitive demand at the expense of motor control of joint stability.

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Hui-Ting Goh, Jill Campbell Stewart, Kevin Becker, and Cheng-Ju Hung

We previously showed that perceived effort during visually guided reaching was altered as task demand varied. Further, self-reported subjective fatigue correlated with perceived effort and reach performance under visually guided conditions. Memory-guided reaching often leads to performance deterioration and can provide insights about the planning and control of reach actions. It is unclear how perceived effort changes during memory-guided reaching and whether self-reported subjective fatigue is associated with perceived effort of memory-guided reaching. Twenty-three young adults performed reach actions under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Perceived effort, reaction time, and endpoint error increased significantly from the visually- to the memory-guided condition. Self-reported subjective fatigue was associated with perceived effort and reach distance error during memory-guided reaching; those with higher levels of fatigue reported greater perceived effort and tended to reach farther when visual information was not available. These findings establish a foundation to examine relationships between subjective fatigue, perceived effort, and reach control.

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Kolby J. Brink, Kari L. McKenzie, and Aaron D. Likens

Load carriage experiments are typically performed from a linear perspective that assumes that movement variability is equivalent to error or noise in the neuromuscular system. A complimentary, nonlinear perspective that treats variability as the object of study has generated important results in movement science outside load carriage settings. To date, no systematic review has yet been conducted to understand how load carriage dynamics change from a nonlinear perspective. The goal of this systematic review is to fill that need. Relevant literature was extracted and reviewed for general trends involving nonlinear perspectives on load carriage. Nonlinear analyses that were used in the reviewed studies included sample, multiscale, and approximate entropy; the Lyapunov exponent; fractal analysis; and relative phase. In general, nonlinear tools successfully distinguish between unloaded and loaded conditions in standing and walking, although not in a consistent manner. The Lyapunov exponent and entropy were the most used nonlinear methods. Two noteworthy findings are that entropy in quiet standing studies tends to decrease, whereas the Lyapunov exponent in walking studies tends to increase, both due to added load. Thus, nonlinear analyses reveal altered load carriage dynamics, demonstrating promise in applying a nonlinear perspective to load carriage while also underscoring the need for more research.

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Chloe McKay, Johanna M. Hoch, Matthew C. Hoch, and Deirdre Dlugonski

Context: Youth sport specialization may be associated with physical literacy and physical activity in young adulthood. The purposes of this study were to compare young adult (18–25 y) physical literacy and physical activity by high school sport specialization status and to examine the relationship between current physical activity and physical literacy. Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional study design. Methods: Participants were recruited from ResearchMatch, university classes, and social media posts. Participants (N = 172; aged 22.1 [2.1] y; 80.1% female) completed the following anonymous surveys on REDCap to assess: demographics and injury history, sport specialization, physical literacy (PLAYself), and physical activity (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire). Results: When controlling for age, there were no statistically significant differences in physical literacy (F 2,166 = 2.02, P = .14) or moderate to vigorous physical activity (F 2,161 = 0.24, P = .79) between sport specialization groups. There was a moderate, positive relationship between physical literacy and physical activity (r = .33, P < .001). Conclusions: Young adult physical literacy and physical activity were similar regardless of youth sport specialization level. Young adult physical literacy was positively associated with physical activity. Future studies should consider physical literacy as a possible correlate of physical activity among young adults.

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Maria K. Talarico, Matthew P. Brancaleone, Kayla E. Berezne, James A. Onate, and Laura C. Boucher

Single-task assessments may not identify lingering effects following a concussion that may be detected under dual-task (DT) paradigms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a novel DT paradigm and concussion history on gait and cognitive performance. Hockey and rugby club college athletes (n = 26) completed a box drill and the color and word Stroop test under single task and DT. Distance ambulated around the box, response rate, and accuracy were recorded to calculate dual-task cost. Mean comparisons and linear mixed-effects regression models were performed. Compared to athletes with no concussion history, those with a history had a greater motor than cognitive dual-task cost and were 3.15% less accurate in Stroop responses (p < .01). Athletes walked 0.72-m shorter distance under DT compared to single task (p = .04). A multidirectional, low-tech DT assessment may highlight long-term motor and cognitive deficits among athletes with a concussion history, which will provide valuable information to prepare and track performance within an athletic season.

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Isadora Grade, Henrique Andrade, Renato Guerreiro, Eduardo Stieler, Flavia R. da Silva, Hesojy G.V. da Silva, Roberto Vital, Renan A. Resende, Dawit A.P. Gonçalves, André G. Andrade, Marco T. de Mello, and Andressa Silva

Context: Sleep serves many important functions for athletes, particularly in the processes of learning, memory, recovery, and cognition. Objectives: Define the sleep parameters of Paralympic athletes and identify the instruments used to assess and monitor sleep Paralympic athletes. Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was carried out based on the PRISMA guidelines. The survey was conducted in April 2020, the searches were carried out again in September 2021 to check whether there were new scientific publications in the area of sleep and Paralympic sport, searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Virtual Health Library (BIREME), and SciELO. This systematic review has included studies that investigated at least one of the following sleep parameters: total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype; the participants were comprised of athletes with disabilities. Studies published at any time in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were included. Evidence Synthesis: Data extraction and study selection were performed by 2 researchers independently, and a third author was consulted as necessary. The search returned a total of 407 studies. Following the screening based on exclusion and inclusion criteria, a total of 13 studies were considered. Paralympic athletes have a low amount (7.06 h) of sleep with poor quality and sleep latency (28.05 min), and 57.2% have daytime sleepiness, with the majority belonging to the indifferent chronotype (53, 5%). Moreover, 11 studies assess sleep using subjective instruments (questionnaires), and 2 studies used an objective instrument (actigraphy). Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common among Paralympic athletes, poor sleep quality and quantity, and high rates of daytime sleepiness. Subjective methods are most commonly used to assess sleep.

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Emma Streatch, Natasha Bruno, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Quality experiences in sport programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can promote physical and psychosocial benefits and long-term quality participation (QP). Unfortunately, children with ASD often experience sport participation barriers and, consequently, participate less in sport compared with children without disabilities. This study investigated QP priorities and strategies that could foster QP for children with ASD. Caregivers (n = 13), volunteers (n = 26), and staff (n = 14) involved in sport programming for children with ASD rated experiential elements of QP using the Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation. In addition , a two-round Delphi survey with staff (Round 1: n = 11; Round 2: n = 13) generated 22 strategies for promoting QP—each rated highly with regard to importance (5.69–6.85 on a 7-point scale). Strategies were substantiated with published research evidence. Findings informed the development of a QP tool designed to help instructors implement identified strategies in hopes of improving sport experiences for children with ASD.