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Kevin Andrew Richards, Scott McNamara, Alyssa M. Trad, Lauren Hill, and Sarena Abdallah

School administrators represent key agents of socialization for teachers within their schools, including adapted physical educators who design and implement instruction for youth with disabilities, often across multiple school sites. The purpose of this study was to understand how adapted physical educators navigate and build relationships with administrators in the schools where they teach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 24 adapted physical educators from the U.S. state of California and analyzed using a multiphase approach. Analysis suggested both the importance of and challenges with building effective relationships with administrators. Themes included the following: (a) Administrators do not understand adapted physical education, which impacts programs and students; (b) the importance of relationship building in cultivating principal support; and (c) relationship development requires intentionality, but results in trust and motivation. Results are discussed using role socialization theory, and recommendations for the preparation of both adapted physical educators and school principals are discussed.

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ZáNean McClain and Daniel W. Tindall

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Vincent Baribeau, Christopher Kirk, Danny Q. Le, Arjun Bose, Ariel Mueller, Duncan French, Todd Sarge, Carl Langan-Evans, Reid Reale, and Kadhiresan R. Murugappan

Purpose: Combat-sport athletes commonly undergo rapid weight loss prior to prebout weigh-in and subsequently rapid weight gain (RWG) prior to competition. This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of RWG and weight differential (WD) between opponents on competitive success. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from professional mixed martial arts (MMA) and boxing events held between 2015 and 2019. The primary outcome was RWG (relative and absolute) between weigh-in and competition stratified by bout winners and losers. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the relationships among bout outcome, RWG, and WD between competitors on the day of their bout. Results: Among 708 MMA athletes included, winners regained more relative body mass (8.7% [3.7%] vs 7.9% [3.8%], P < .01) than losers. In 1392 included male boxers, winners regained significantly more relative body mass (8.0% [3.0%] vs 6.9% [3.2%], P < .01) than losers. Each percentage body mass increase resulted in a 7% increased likelihood of victory in MMA and a 13% increase in boxing. The relationship between RWG and competitive success remained significant in regional and male international MMA athletes, as well as boxers. WD predicted victory in international mixed martial artists and boxers. WD predicted victory by knockout or technical knockout in international MMA athletes and regional boxers. Conclusion: This analysis of combat-sport athletes indicates that RWG and WD influence competitive success. These findings raise fair-play and safety concerns in these popular sports and may help guide risk-mitigating regulation strategies.

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Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Carolina Fernandes da Silva

Brazil is a country member of the Para Report Card, and Brazilian researchers have frequently published information on physical activity of children and adolescents. The current study aimed to analyze the policies for the promotion of adapted physical activity to Brazilian children and adolescents with disabilities. Official government information on adapted physical activity was analyzed from the official websites. Policies were analyzed based on the Para Report Card benchmarks, and after that we used the principles of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to analyze the information. Adapted physical activity is not the main focus of any of the many policies to promote physical activity for children and adolescents. Based on the Para Report Card initiative, the score for this indicator in Brazil is D. Brazil needs to develop specific policies to promote physical activity adapted to the pediatric population with disabilities.

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Per T. Byrkjedal, Thomas Bjørnsen, Live S. Luteberget, Kolbjørn Lindberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Eirik Haukali, and Matt Spencer

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical performance tests and on-ice external load from simulated games (scrimmages) in ice hockey. Methods: A total of 14 players completed a physical performance test battery consisting of 30-m sprint test—run and 30-m sprint test—skate (including 10-m split times and maximum speed), countermovement jump, standing long jump, bench press, pull-ups, and trap bar deadlift and participated in 4 scrimmages. External load variables from scrimmages included total distance; peak speed; slow (< 11.0 km/h), moderate (11.0–16.9 km/h), high (17.0–23.9 km/h), and sprint (> 24.0 km/h) speed skating distance; number of sprints; PlayerLoad™; number of high-intensity events (> 2.5 m/s); accelerations; decelerations; and changes of direction. Bayesian pairwise correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between physical performance tests and external load performance variables. Results: The results showed strong evidence (Bayes factor > 10) for associations between pull-ups and high-intensity events (τ = .61) and between maximum speed skate and peak speed (τ = .55). There was moderate evidence (Bayes factor >3 to <10) for 6 associations: both maximum speed skate (τ = .44) and countermovement jump (τ = .44) with sprint speed skating distance, countermovement jump with number of sprints (τ = .46), pull-ups with changes of direction (τ = .50), trap bar with peak speed (τ = .45), and body mass with total distance (τ = .49). Conclusion: This study found physical performance tests to be associated with some of the external load variables from scrimmages. Nevertheless, the majority of correlations did not display meaningful associations, possibly being influenced by the selection of physical performance tests.

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Justin A. Haegele

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Peter Leo, Manuel Mateo-March, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Xabier Muriel, Alexis Gandía-Soriano, Andrea Giorgi, Mikel Zabala, David Barranco-Gil, Iñigo Mujika, Jesús G. Pallarés, and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose: No information is available on the torque/cadence relationship in road cyclists. We aimed to establish whether this relationship differs between cyclists of different performance levels or team roles. Methods: Mean maximal power (MMP) output data from 177 riders were obtained from 2012 to 2021 from training and competitions. Cyclists were categorized according to their performance level (world-tour [WT, n = 68], procontinental [PC, n = 63], or under 23 [U23, n = 46]) and team role (time trialists [n = 12], all-rounders [n = 94], climbers [n = 64], or team leaders [n = 7]). Results: A significant interaction effect was found for absolute and relative MMP (P < .001), with higher values in PC than WT for short (5–60 s) efforts and the opposite trend for longer durations. MMP was also greater in PC than in U23 for short efforts (30–60 s), with WT and PC attaining higher MMP than U23 for longer bouts (5–60 min). A significant interaction effect was found for cadence (P = .007, but with no post hoc differences) and absolute (P = .010) and relative torque (P = .002), with PC and WT showing significantly higher torque (all P < .05) than U23 for 5- to 60-minute efforts, yet with no differences between the former 2 performance levels. No interaction effect between team roles was found for cadence (P = .185) or relative torque (P = .559), but a significant interaction effect was found for absolute torque (P < .001), with all-rounders attaining significantly higher values than climbers for 5-second to 5-minute efforts. Conclusions: Differences in MMP between cycling performance levels and rider types are dependent on torque rather than cadence, which might support the role of torque development in performance.

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Jad Adrian Washif, Iñigo Mujika, Matthew D. DeLang, João Brito, Alexandre Dellal, Thomas Haugen, Bahar Hassanmirzaei, Del P. Wong, Abdulaziz Farooq, Gürhan Dönmez, Kwang Joon Kim, Juan David Peña Duque, Lewis MacMillan, Ryo Matsunaga, Alireza Rabbani, Mohamed Romdhani, Montassar Tabben, Yacine Zerguini, Piotr Zmijewski, David B. Pyne, and Karim Chamari

The COVID-19 lockdown challenged the training options of athletes worldwide, including players from the most popular sport globally, football/soccer. Purpose: The authors explored the training practices of football players worldwide during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: Football players (N = 2482, 30% professional, 22% semipro, and 48% amateur) completed an online survey (May–July 2020) on their training practices before versus during lockdown (March–June 2020). Questions were related to training frequency and session duration, as well as training knowledge and attitudes. Results: Before lockdown, more professional (87%) than semipro (67%) and amateur (65%) players trained ≥5 sessions/wk, but this proportion decreased during the lockdown to 55%, 35%, and 42%, respectively. Players (80%–87%) trained ≥60 minutes before lockdown, but this proportion decreased to 45% in professionals, 43% in amateurs, and 36% in semipros during lockdown. At home, more than two-thirds of players had training space (73%) and equipment (66%) for cardiorespiratory training, while availability of equipment for technical and strength training was <50% during lockdown. Interactions between coach/trainer and player were more frequent (ie, daily) among professional (27%) than amateur (11%) and semipro (17%) players. Training load monitoring, albeit limited, was mostly performed by fitness coaches, more so with professionals (35%) than amateurs (13%) and semipros (17%). The players’ training knowledge and attitudes/beliefs toward training were relatively modest (50%–59%). Conclusion: COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected training practices of football players worldwide, especially amateurs and semipros, for example, in training frequency, duration, intensity, technical, recovery, and other fitness training and coaching-related aspects. During lockdown-like situations, players should be monitored closely and provided appropriate support to facilitate their training.

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Thomas Zandonai, Ana M. Peiró, Caterina Covelli, Xavier de la Torre, and Francesco Botré

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of tramadol use among athletes from 2012 to 2020. Methods: All urine samples were collected from national and international in-competition doping-control tests that took place in Italy between 2012 and 2020. The analysis of the samples was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry with electronic ionization and acquisition in selected ion monitoring. The cutoff tramadol concentration was >50 ng/mL. Results: Of the 60,802 in-competition urine samples we analyzed, 1.2% (n = 759) showed tramadol intake, with 84.2% (n = 637) of these coming from cyclists and 15.8% (n = 122) from other sports. In cycling, a strong and significant negative correlation was found (r = −.738; P = .003), showing a decrease of tramadol use compared with the other sports. Conclusions: The decrease in tramadol prevalence in cycling in the last years may be due to (1) the deterrent action of antidoping regulations and (2) the fact that tramadol may not have any actual ergogenic effect on performance.