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Kevin Andrew Richards, Scott McNamara, Alyssa M. Trad, Lauren Hill, and Sarena Abdallah

School administrators represent key agents of socialization for teachers within their schools, including adapted physical educators who design and implement instruction for youth with disabilities, often across multiple school sites. The purpose of this study was to understand how adapted physical educators navigate and build relationships with administrators in the schools where they teach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 24 adapted physical educators from the U.S. state of California and analyzed using a multiphase approach. Analysis suggested both the importance of and challenges with building effective relationships with administrators. Themes included the following: (a) Administrators do not understand adapted physical education, which impacts programs and students; (b) the importance of relationship building in cultivating principal support; and (c) relationship development requires intentionality, but results in trust and motivation. Results are discussed using role socialization theory, and recommendations for the preparation of both adapted physical educators and school principals are discussed.

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ZáNean McClain and Daniel W. Tindall

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John J. Davis IV, Blaise E. Oeding, and Allison H. Gruber

Background: Running is a popular form of exercise, and its physiological effects are strongly modulated by speed. Accelerometry-based activity monitors are commonly used to measure physical activity in research, but no method exists to estimate running speed from only accelerometer data. Methods: Using three cohorts totaling 72 subjects performing treadmill and outdoor running, we developed linear, ridge, and gradient-boosted tree regression models to estimate running speed from raw accelerometer data from waist- or wrist-worn devices. To assess model performance in a real-world scenario, we deployed the best-performing model to data from 16 additional runners completing a 13-week training program while equipped with waist-worn accelerometers and commercially available foot pods. Results: Linear, ridge, and boosted tree models estimated speed with 12.0%, 11.6%, and 11.2% mean absolute percentage error, respectively, using waist-worn accelerometer data. Errors were greater using wrist-worn data, with linear, ridge, and boosted tree models achieving 13.8%, 14.0%, and 12.8% error. Across 663 free-living runs, speed was significantly associated with run duration (p = .009) and perceived run intensity (p = .008). Speed was nonsignificantly associated with fatigue (p = .07). Estimated speeds differed from foot pod measurements by 7.25%; associations and statistical significance were similar when speed was assessed via accelerometry versus via foot pod. Conclusion: Raw accelerometry data can be used to estimate running speed in free-living data with sufficient accuracy to detect associations with important measures of health and performance. Our approach is most useful in studies where research grade accelerometry is preferable to traditional global positioning system or foot pod-based measurements, such as in large-scale observational studies on physical activity.

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Bruno Rodrigues, Jorge Encantado, Eliana Carraça, João Martins, Adilson Marques, Luís Lopes, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Dylan Cliff, Romeu Mendes, and Rute Santos

Background: We aim to systematically review the literature on measurement properties of self- and proxy-reported questionnaires measuring 24-hour movement behaviors in children and adolescents. Methods: PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE were searched until June 2021. Studies were included if the sample size for validity studies had 50 participants (minimum) and included, at least, both validity and test–retest reliability results of questionnaires. The review followed an adaptation of the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines, to evaluate the quality of measurements properties of the questionnaires (content, convergent and criterion validity, reliability, measurement error, and responsiveness), as well as the risk of bias of each measurement property. Results: This review included 29 studies, describing 37 questionnaires. Sixty-eight percent showed “adequate” content validity. None of the questionnaires showed overall “adequate” criterion validity, and the risk of bias was “very low” for 92%. One questionnaire showed “adequate” convergent validity, and 73% of the studies were classified with a “high risk of bias.” Seven questionnaires showed “adequate” reliability, and 27.3% of the studies were rated with a “very low risk of bias.” None of the questionnaires showed “adequate” criterion validity and reliability, simultaneously. Conclusions: Existing questionnaires have insufficient measurement properties, and none considered the 24-hour movement behavior paradigm. These results highlight the need for better questionnaires of movement behavior combinations, to improve the monitoring and surveillance systems of 24-hour movement behaviors in this population.

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Vincent Baribeau, Christopher Kirk, Danny Q. Le, Arjun Bose, Ariel Mueller, Duncan French, Todd Sarge, Carl Langan-Evans, Reid Reale, and Kadhiresan R. Murugappan

Purpose: Combat-sport athletes commonly undergo rapid weight loss prior to prebout weigh-in and subsequently rapid weight gain (RWG) prior to competition. This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of RWG and weight differential (WD) between opponents on competitive success. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from professional mixed martial arts (MMA) and boxing events held between 2015 and 2019. The primary outcome was RWG (relative and absolute) between weigh-in and competition stratified by bout winners and losers. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the relationships among bout outcome, RWG, and WD between competitors on the day of their bout. Results: Among 708 MMA athletes included, winners regained more relative body mass (8.7% [3.7%] vs 7.9% [3.8%], P < .01) than losers. In 1392 included male boxers, winners regained significantly more relative body mass (8.0% [3.0%] vs 6.9% [3.2%], P < .01) than losers. Each percentage body mass increase resulted in a 7% increased likelihood of victory in MMA and a 13% increase in boxing. The relationship between RWG and competitive success remained significant in regional and male international MMA athletes, as well as boxers. WD predicted victory in international mixed martial artists and boxers. WD predicted victory by knockout or technical knockout in international MMA athletes and regional boxers. Conclusion: This analysis of combat-sport athletes indicates that RWG and WD influence competitive success. These findings raise fair-play and safety concerns in these popular sports and may help guide risk-mitigating regulation strategies.

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Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Carolina Fernandes da Silva

Brazil is a country member of the Para Report Card, and Brazilian researchers have frequently published information on physical activity of children and adolescents. The current study aimed to analyze the policies for the promotion of adapted physical activity to Brazilian children and adolescents with disabilities. Official government information on adapted physical activity was analyzed from the official websites. Policies were analyzed based on the Para Report Card benchmarks, and after that we used the principles of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to analyze the information. Adapted physical activity is not the main focus of any of the many policies to promote physical activity for children and adolescents. Based on the Para Report Card initiative, the score for this indicator in Brazil is D. Brazil needs to develop specific policies to promote physical activity adapted to the pediatric population with disabilities.

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Per T. Byrkjedal, Thomas Bjørnsen, Live S. Luteberget, Kolbjørn Lindberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Eirik Haukali, and Matt Spencer

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical performance tests and on-ice external load from simulated games (scrimmages) in ice hockey. Methods: A total of 14 players completed a physical performance test battery consisting of 30-m sprint test—run and 30-m sprint test—skate (including 10-m split times and maximum speed), countermovement jump, standing long jump, bench press, pull-ups, and trap bar deadlift and participated in 4 scrimmages. External load variables from scrimmages included total distance; peak speed; slow (< 11.0 km/h), moderate (11.0–16.9 km/h), high (17.0–23.9 km/h), and sprint (> 24.0 km/h) speed skating distance; number of sprints; PlayerLoad™; number of high-intensity events (> 2.5 m/s); accelerations; decelerations; and changes of direction. Bayesian pairwise correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between physical performance tests and external load performance variables. Results: The results showed strong evidence (Bayes factor > 10) for associations between pull-ups and high-intensity events (τ = .61) and between maximum speed skate and peak speed (τ = .55). There was moderate evidence (Bayes factor >3 to <10) for 6 associations: both maximum speed skate (τ = .44) and countermovement jump (τ = .44) with sprint speed skating distance, countermovement jump with number of sprints (τ = .46), pull-ups with changes of direction (τ = .50), trap bar with peak speed (τ = .45), and body mass with total distance (τ = .49). Conclusion: This study found physical performance tests to be associated with some of the external load variables from scrimmages. Nevertheless, the majority of correlations did not display meaningful associations, possibly being influenced by the selection of physical performance tests.

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Justin A. Haegele

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Peter Leo, Manuel Mateo-March, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Xabier Muriel, Alexis Gandía-Soriano, Andrea Giorgi, Mikel Zabala, David Barranco-Gil, Iñigo Mujika, Jesús G. Pallarés, and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose: No information is available on the torque/cadence relationship in road cyclists. We aimed to establish whether this relationship differs between cyclists of different performance levels or team roles. Methods: Mean maximal power (MMP) output data from 177 riders were obtained from 2012 to 2021 from training and competitions. Cyclists were categorized according to their performance level (world-tour [WT, n = 68], procontinental [PC, n = 63], or under 23 [U23, n = 46]) and team role (time trialists [n = 12], all-rounders [n = 94], climbers [n = 64], or team leaders [n = 7]). Results: A significant interaction effect was found for absolute and relative MMP (P < .001), with higher values in PC than WT for short (5–60 s) efforts and the opposite trend for longer durations. MMP was also greater in PC than in U23 for short efforts (30–60 s), with WT and PC attaining higher MMP than U23 for longer bouts (5–60 min). A significant interaction effect was found for cadence (P = .007, but with no post hoc differences) and absolute (P = .010) and relative torque (P = .002), with PC and WT showing significantly higher torque (all P < .05) than U23 for 5- to 60-minute efforts, yet with no differences between the former 2 performance levels. No interaction effect between team roles was found for cadence (P = .185) or relative torque (P = .559), but a significant interaction effect was found for absolute torque (P < .001), with all-rounders attaining significantly higher values than climbers for 5-second to 5-minute efforts. Conclusions: Differences in MMP between cycling performance levels and rider types are dependent on torque rather than cadence, which might support the role of torque development in performance.