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Akilah R. Carter-Francique

The purpose of this article is to encourage administrators, faculty, and staff to foster a sense of belonging for students of color in kinesiology and affiliated academic units at institutions of higher education. Kinesiology is vast and has a range of corresponding workforce careers; however, despite equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, people of color still lag behind in representation. Acknowledging the current social and legislative climate that seeks to dismantle equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, the American Kinesiology Association as a leadership-driven membership has the opportunity to further its stance and governance through amplifying the sense of belonging as a social justice practice. Fostering a holistic sense of belonging for students of color beyond the conventional classroom can promote successful student outcomes with increased academic engagement and use of support services, increased personal self-concept and mental health and wellness, and an overall satisfaction with the college experience.

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David Kahan

Background: Physical inactivity prevalence estimates for youth and adults have been published on a global scale and for various geographical and geopolitical permutations. Only one such study has presented estimates for adults in Muslim countries, and it is nearly 10 years old. I conducted an update of this study by incorporating newer data, refining methods, and including youth estimates. Methods: I identified 47 Muslim countries with physical inactivity data for youth, adults, or both. Data were extracted by country primarily from global estimates reported by Guthold et al in 2018 and 2020 and from World Health Organization surveillance data repositories. Weighted prevalence calculations for total prevalence and by sex, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab), and country income group accounted for country population, study sample size, and a country’s proportion of Muslims. Z tests and chi-square tests, and follow-up odds ratios and percentage deviations, respectively, were used to determine differences by sex, ethnicity, and country income group. Results: Overall physical inactivity prevalence was 84.2% (youth) and 29.6% (adults). Gaps favoring males over females were observed for youth (5.6% lower prevalence) and adults (9.6% lower prevalence). Gaps favoring non-Arabs over Arabs were observed for youth (3.9% lower) and adults (3.8% lower). No pattern emerged for country income group for youth; however, prevalence for adults trended upward across income groups from low (22.7%) to high (62.0%). Conclusions: Gaps by sex and ethnicity have narrowed since the original report and prevalence values are somewhat higher than current global estimates.

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Ketra L. Armstrong

People have an innate and fundamental need to belong (i.e., to establish and maintain high-quality and enriching relationships with others). Belonging is important to our personal and professional lives, and culture is often the conduit filtering our sense of belonging. Some organizations are culturally inclusive wherein a culturally diverse array of individuals feel connected and have a sense of belonging. In contrast, others are marred by cultural exclusion, leaving some individuals culturally disconnected, culturally disengaged, and lacking a sense of belonging. This article posits cultural belonging as the “impoverishing errand” that kinesiology must accomplish. It discusses personal and positional culture, organizational culture, and the leadership needed in kinesiology to create institutional environments that support and sustain inclusive cultures of belonging for faculty, staff, and students. In so doing, it illustrates the need for the philosophical/ideological and managerial focus on people-centered leadership that normalizes cultural inclusion.

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K. Michael Rowley, M.P. Jenny O, and E. Missy Wright

Faculty with personal and professional identities that are marginalized in higher education experience identity taxation, which is the experience of greater physical, mental, emotional, or psychological labor beyond what is experienced by faculty members with dominant-group identities. Inequities in service work contribute substantially to this taxation. Here, we describe persistent inequities in service work in academia, the impacts and consequences of those inequities, and strategies from the literature and our own experiences to make service work more equitable. We then detail two case examples for how we implemented some of these strategies in our kinesiology department, including (a) adopting an equity-based model of service work for required department and college service committees and (b) applying an equity lens to a faculty search committee. Finally, we reflect on our successes and areas for improvement.

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Erin E. Eggert, Will Palmer, Lourdes I. Shanjani, Kimberlee Gretebeck, and Jane E. Mahoney

Background: Few programs assess for outcomes once translated into practice. The Physical Activity for Lifelong Success program was developed as a center-based public health intervention and shown to improve walking speed and distance among older adults with type 2 diabetes. We adapted the program for community-based delivery by lay leaders to physically inactive older adults. Methods: We followed the Replicating Effective Programs framework to identify community stakeholders, adapt, implement, and evaluate fidelity of delivery in community settings, and plan for maintenance and evolution. Sixteen community sites enrolled 184 adults (mean age 73.5 y, 85% female, 93% White) in 21 workshops. Baseline and postworkshop measures assessed participants’ health-related quality of life, physical function, and physical fitness. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact tests, Student t test, and paired linear regression with fixed effects. Results: Fidelity testing indicated leader training was sufficient to maintain key elements with delivery. Data from 122 participants showed improvements in chair stands (P < .001), arm curls (P < .001), 2-minute step test (P < .001), sit-and-reach (P = .001), 8-foot up-and-go (P < .001), and 10-m walk (P < .001). Conclusions: Adaptation of Physical Activity for Lifelong Success for implementation by community organizations for physically inactive older adults demonstrates that fidelity and effectiveness can be maintained after program translation.

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Catarina Morais, Clara Simães, A. Rui Gomes, and Beatriz M. Gonçalves

This study aimed to provide a framework for how athletes evaluate stress before a competition and how stress relates to cognitive appraisal, sport confidence, and expectations of performance. Participants were 327 youth male athletes, aged 15–19 years (M = 16.90; SD = 1.00), who competed in the Portuguese National Football League and completed a questionnaire 24–48 hr before their match, using the critical incident methodology. Results revealed that opponents were the main source of stress for athletes and that the more athletes stress about their opponents, the more they tend to perceive the situation as threatening (and less challenging), the lower their perceptions of coping and sport confidence which, in turn, predicted lower expectations of individual and collective performance. In sum, perceiving the stressful situation as either a challenge or a threat predicts young athletes’ sport confidence and, consequently, expected performance when dealing with stressful competitive situations.

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Ingmar Rapp, Jonathan Gruhler, and Benjamin Ambiel

Background: Several studies have found that individuals with a partner were less physically active than those without. To better understand the reasons for this association, we examine whether the existence of a relationship or the current presence of a partner influences physical activity (PA). Methods: We use data from the most recent German Time Use Survey 2012/13 to examine leisure-time PA. All leisure-time activities reported in the time diaries are classified according to their metabolic equivalent of task (MET) to calculate the mean MET scores. First, we use ordinary least square regressions and logistic regressions to examine the effects of living together with a partner or not on mean daily MET scores and on exercise. Second, we apply person-day fixed effects models to estimate the impact of current partner presence on current PA levels. Results: Having a partner is negatively associated with exercising but is not correlated with mean leisure-time MET scores for both women and men. For those with a partner, current MET levels are substantially lower when the partner is present than when the partner is absent. When partners spend leisure-time activities apart, their MET levels are higher than those of individuals without a partner. Conclusions: The results suggest that it is not the mere existence of a romantic relationship but the current copresence with a partner that affects PA behavior. Therefore, interventions to increase PA may be promising if they can encourage couples to be active together.

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Vanessa Pitre, Martin Sénéchal, and Danielle R. Bouchard

Exercise is the single most effective strategy to reduce the risk of falls. Online classes have grown in popularity, but the benefits of online classes remain unknown. Zoomers on the Go is a peer-led 12-week exercise program offered twice weekly to adults 50+ years old. The main outcome was lower body strength measured by the 30-s chair stand test. Other outcomes included dropout, attendance, balance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and perceived health. A total of 74 participants (age 66.3 ± 7.1 years) in the online group and 84 participants in the in-person group (age 67.3 ± 7.2 years) completed the program, with attendance for the online group. Both groups significantly improved their 30-s chair stand, cardiorespiratory fitness, and balance (p < .001) with no difference in functional benefits between groups. The in-person group improved their perceived health and significantly reduced levels of stress and depression, while no such changes were observed in the online group.