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Effect of Neurofeedback Training Along With Swimming Exercise on the Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Severity of Dependence, and Craving in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients

Atefeh Fadaei, Mahmoud Najafi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Mohammad Ali Tajik-Mansoury, and Mohammad Afkar

This study investigated whether neurofeedback (NFB) training and swimming exercise (Swim) would reduce the stress, anxiety, depression, severity of dependence, and cravings in patients addicted to methamphetamines. Participants were allocated randomly to four groups: control group, NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim. All groups completed the study questionnaire before and after treatment. The NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim groups reported significantly less stress, cravings, and severity of dependence than the control group. The Swim and NFB/Swim groups had significantly lower depression scores than the control group. Also, the NFB/Swim group experienced less anxiety than the control group. However, the NFB/Swim group had lower levels of stress than the Swim group, and lower levels of anxiety and severity of dependence than the NFB group. These findings suggest that NFB training along with swimming exercise was effective in managing methamphetamine-related behavioral disturbances, which may help patients to manage their cravings.

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The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Sema Gultekin Arayici and Serap Tekinsav Sutcu

Exercise addiction manifests as a behavioral compulsion where physical activity becomes excessively pursued, leading to potential harm to both physical and mental well-being, as well as interpersonal connections. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The study sample consisted of 386 regular exercisers who completed several questionnaires, including the Childhood Trauma Scale, Exercise Dependence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale. The results of the analyses revealed that basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties were significant predictors of exercise addiction symptoms, and they mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that may lead to exercise addiction and have implications for prevention and treatment. In this context, the results and limitations are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

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Brazilian Women in Paralympic Sports: Uncovering Historical Milestones in the Summer Paralympic Games

Luiz Gustavo T. Fabricio dos Santos, Isabella dos Santos Alves, Náthali Fernanda Feliciano, Africa Alejandra Ortuño Torres, Luis Felipe Castelli Correia de Campos, and Maria Luiza Tanure Alves

The journey of Brazilian female Paralympians transcends mere statistical increases in women’s participation. Behind the modest athlete growth lies the reality of women who are doubly marginalized by the intersection of gender and disability in an arena tailored for able-bodied men. Our study aimed to catalyze critical discourses surrounding the historical trajectory of Paralympic women’s sports. Through a comprehensive documentary analysis based on the Brazilian Paralympic Committee’s official documents from 1976 to 2021, we sought to shed light on this complex scenario. Numerically, Brazil’s representation comprised 229 women who, predominantly, had physical impairments and engaged in individual sports. In addition to a sporting legacy deeply entrenched in physical rehabilitation with limited opportunities for team-based sports, we observed negative influences stemming from ableist and sexist narratives. A thorough investigation into Paralympic milestones revealed a multitude of social barriers and highlighted the significant impact of societal changes in reshaping athletic opportunities and challenging traditional stereotypes.

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Comparing Knee Kinetics and Kinematics in Healthy Individuals and Those With Knee Osteoarthritis, With and Without Flat Feet

Maryam Sohrabi, Giti Torkaman, and Fariba Bahrami

Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and flat feet are more likely to experience increased pain and cartilage damage. This study aimed to investigate the knee kinetics, kinematics, pain, and physical function in individuals with moderate symptomatic KOA, in comparison to asymptomatic control participants. Thirty volunteers with moderate KOA (with flat feet n = 15, with normal feet n = 15) and 30 asymptomatic people (with flat feet n = 15, with normal feet n = 15) were evaluated. The knee adduction angular impulse, knee flexion moment, knee flexion angular impulse, and knee flexion angle were measured during level walking. The pain was assessed in patients with KOA. The study found that individuals with KOA had a significant increase in the knee adduction angular impulse compared with the asymptomatic people (P < .05). The KOA with flat feet group had significantly lower knee flexion moment, knee flexion angular impulse, and knee flexion angle values than the KOA with normal feet group (P < .05). Furthermore, the KOA with flat feet group had a higher pain score than the KOA with normal feet group. Individuals with osteoarthritis and flat feet had lower knee flexion moments which may indicate reduced knee force exerted through compensatory mechanisms. Despite this reduction, they reported significantly higher levels of pain compared with those without flat feet, a finding that warrants further investigation in future studies.

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Fourier Analysis of the Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Walking: Applications for Quantifying Differences in Gait Strategies

Taylor P. Trentadue and Daniel Schmitt

Time series biomechanical data inform our understanding of normal gait mechanics and pathomechanics. This study examines the utility of different quantitative methods to distinguish vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) from experimentally distinct gait strategies. The goals of this study are to compare measures of VGRF data—using the shape factor method and a Fourier series-based analysis—to (1) describe how these methods reflect and distinguish gait patterns and (2) determine which Fourier series coefficients discriminate normal walking, with a relatively stiff-legged gait, from compliant walking, using deep knee flexion and limited vertical oscillation. This study includes a reanalysis of previously presented VGRF data. We applied the shape factor method and fit 3- to 8-term Fourier series to zero-padded VGRF data. We compared VGRF renderings using Euclidean L2 distances and correlations stratified by gait strategy. Euclidean L2 distances improved with additional harmonics, with limited improvement after the seventh term. Euclidean L2 distances were greater in shape factor versus Fourier series renderings. In the 8 harmonic model, amplitudes of 9 Fourier coefficients—which contribute to VGRF features including peak and local minimum amplitudes and limb loading rates—were different between normal and compliant walking. The results suggest that Fourier series-based methods distinguish between gait strategies.

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The Midfoot Joint Complex (Foot Arch) Contributes to the Upper Body Position in Bipedal Walking and Coordinates With the Lower Limb Joints

Leonardo D. Barsante, Paula M.M. Arantes, Daniela V. Vaz, Fabricio A. Magalhães, Diego S. Carvalho, Aline C. Cruz, Renan A. Resende, Juliana M. Ocarino, Sérgio T. Fonseca, and Thales R. Souza

This study estimated the contribution of the midfoot joint complex (MJC) kinematics to the pelvis anterior–posterior positions during the stance phase of walking and investigated whether the MJC is functionally coordinated with the lower limb joints to maintain similar pelvic positions across steps. Hip, knee, ankle, and MJC sagittal angles were measured in 11 nondisabled participants during walking. The joints’ contributions to pelvic positions were computed through equations derived from a link-segment model. Functional coordination across steps was identified when the MJC contribution to pelvic position varied and the summed contributions of other joints varied in the opposite direction (strong negative covariations [r ≤ −.7] in stance phase instants). We observed that the MJC plantarflexion (arch raising) during the midstance and late stance leads the pelvis backward, avoiding excessive forward displacement. The MJC was the second joint that contributed most to the pelvis positions (around 18% of all joints’ contributions), after the ankle joint. The MJC and ankle were the joints that were most frequently coordinated with the other joints (≅70% of the stance phase duration). The findings suggest that the MJC is part of the kinematic chain that determines pelvis positions during walking and is functionally coordinated with the lower limb joints.

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Acute and Acclimated Effects of Wearing Compression Garments on Balance Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

You-jou Hung, Frederick Couverette, Jeffrey Hamon, and Dustyn Willard

Falls are very serious health concerns among older adults. Providing additional cutaneous and proprioceptive feedback to older adults may enhance their balance control and therefore reduce the incidents of falls. This study aimed to investigate the acute and acclimated effect of wearing waist-to-above-ankle compression garments (CGs) on balance control in community-dwelling older adults. Thirty-one older adults participated in the study. The Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, and the Fall Risk Test of the Biodex Balance System were used in a random order to examine balance control in three testing sessions 1 week apart. Results indicated wearing CGs had a significant impact on the Timed Up and Go test (p < .001), Berg Balance Scale (p = .001), and the Fall Risk Test (p = .001). For the Timed Up and Go test, participants exhibited significant improvement in both the acute (8.68 vs. 7.91 s) and acclimated effect (7.91 vs. 7.41 s) of wearing CGs. For the Berg Balance Scale, participants showed significant improvement after wearing CGs for 1 week in comparison to the no CGs condition (55.77 vs. 55.39 points). For the Fall Risk Test, participants showed a significant improvement in the acute effect of wearing CGs in comparison to the no CGs condition (1.55° vs. 1.31°). This exploratory study showed that wearing waist-to-above-ankle CGs provided a positive impact on balance control in healthy community-dwelling older adults. It lays the foundation for future studies with a larger sample size to investigate the potential benefits of wearing CGs in individuals with balance control deficits and/or other comorbidities.

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Assessing Postural Control From Birth to Adulthood Among Individuals Born Preterm: A Systematic Review

Soraia Pereira, Augusta Silva, Rubim Santos, and Cláudia Costa Silva

Premature life exposure, meaning an immature central nervous system, presents a significant challenge for the development of postural control and, in turn, overall motor development. Preventing motor delay thus requires identifying, characterizing, and quantifying deficit in postural control as early as possible. In our study, we reviewed the procedures used in past studies to assess postural control among individuals born preterm, specifically the characterization of participants, the instruments and motor tasks involved, the types of data collected and analyzed, and the outcomes. To that end, we performed a literature search on PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and Scopus using Boolean logic and assessed the quality of the studies with a standardized assessment based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Of 35 potential studies, 24 were included; all evaluated infants born preterm, but six did not include a control group of full-term infants. Although the heterogeneity of measurements, variability of instruments, and divergence in motor tasks examined limit definitive conclusions based on quantitative synthesis and the generalization of the results, most studies revealed dysfunctional postural control among individuals born preterm.

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Force–Time Characteristics of Repeated Bouts of Depth Jumps and the Effects of Compression Garments

Freddy Brown, Matt Hill, Derek Renshaw, and Jason Tallis

No studies have reported ground reaction force (GRF) profiles of the repeated depth jump (DJ) protocols commonly used to study exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, while compression garments (CG) may accelerate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, any effects on the repeated bout effect are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the GRF profiles of 2 repeated bouts of damage-inducing DJs and the effects of wearing CG for recovery. Nonresistance-trained males randomly received CG (n = 9) or placebo (n = 8) for 72 hours recovery, following 20 × 20 m sprints and 10 × 10 DJs from 0.6 m. Exercise was repeated after 14 days. Using a 3-way (set × bout × group) design, changes in GRF were assessed with analysis of variance and statistical parametric mapping. Jump height, reactive strength, peak, and mean propulsive forces declined between sets (P < .001). Vertical stiffness, contact time, force at zero velocity, and propulsive duration increased (P < .05). According to statistical parametric mapping, braking (17%–25% of the movement) and propulsive forces (58%–81%) declined (P < .05). During the repeated bout, peak propulsive force and duration increased (P < .05), while mean propulsive force (P < .05) and GRF from 59% to 73% declined (P < .001). A repeated bout of DJs differed in propulsive GRF, without changes to the eccentric phase, or effects from CG.

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Influence of Pedal Interface During Pedaling With the Upper Versus Lower Limbs: A Pilot Analysis of Torque Performance and Muscle Synergies

Laurent Vigouroux, Théo Cartier, and Guillaume Rao

Pedaling is a physical exercise practiced with either the upper or the lower limbs. Muscle coordination during these exercises has been previously studied using electromyography and synergy analysis, and three to four synergies have been identified for the lower and upper limbs. The question of synergy adaptabilities has not been investigated during pedaling with the upper limbs, and the impact of various modalities is yet not known. This study investigates the effect of pedal type (either clipped/gripped or flat) on the torque performance and the synergy in both upper and lower limbs. Torques applied by six participants while pedaling at 30% of their maximal power have been recorded for both upper and lower limbs. Electromyographic data of 11 muscles on the upper limbs and 11 muscles on the lower limbs have been recorded and synergies extracted and compared between pedal types. Results showed that the torques were not modified by the pedal types for the lower limbs while a deep adaptation is observable for the upper limbs. Participants indeed used the additional holding possibility by pulling the pedals on top of the pushing action. Synergies were accordingly modified for upper limbs while they remain stable for the lower limbs. In both limbs, the synergies showed a good reproducibility even if larger variabilities were observed for the upper limbs. This pilot study highlights the adaptability of muscle synergies according to the condition of movement execution, especially observed for the upper limbs, and can bring some new insights for the rehabilitation exercises.