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Maria K. Talarico, Matthew P. Brancaleone, Kayla E. Berezne, James A. Onate, and Laura C. Boucher

Single-task assessments may not identify lingering effects following a concussion that may be detected under dual-task (DT) paradigms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a novel DT paradigm and concussion history on gait and cognitive performance. Hockey and rugby club college athletes (n = 26) completed a box drill and the color and word Stroop test under single task and DT. Distance ambulated around the box, response rate, and accuracy were recorded to calculate dual-task cost. Mean comparisons and linear mixed-effects regression models were performed. Compared to athletes with no concussion history, those with a history had a greater motor than cognitive dual-task cost and were 3.15% less accurate in Stroop responses (p < .01). Athletes walked 0.72-m shorter distance under DT compared to single task (p = .04). A multidirectional, low-tech DT assessment may highlight long-term motor and cognitive deficits among athletes with a concussion history, which will provide valuable information to prepare and track performance within an athletic season.

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Isadora Grade, Henrique Andrade, Renato Guerreiro, Eduardo Stieler, Flavia R. da Silva, Hesojy G.V. da Silva, Roberto Vital, Renan A. Resende, Dawit A.P. Gonçalves, André G. Andrade, Marco T. de Mello, and Andressa Silva

Context: Sleep serves many important functions for athletes, particularly in the processes of learning, memory, recovery, and cognition. Objectives: Define the sleep parameters of Paralympic athletes and identify the instruments used to assess and monitor sleep Paralympic athletes. Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was carried out based on the PRISMA guidelines. The survey was conducted in April 2020, the searches were carried out again in September 2021 to check whether there were new scientific publications in the area of sleep and Paralympic sport, searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Virtual Health Library (BIREME), and SciELO. This systematic review has included studies that investigated at least one of the following sleep parameters: total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype; the participants were comprised of athletes with disabilities. Studies published at any time in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were included. Evidence Synthesis: Data extraction and study selection were performed by 2 researchers independently, and a third author was consulted as necessary. The search returned a total of 407 studies. Following the screening based on exclusion and inclusion criteria, a total of 13 studies were considered. Paralympic athletes have a low amount (7.06 h) of sleep with poor quality and sleep latency (28.05 min), and 57.2% have daytime sleepiness, with the majority belonging to the indifferent chronotype (53, 5%). Moreover, 11 studies assess sleep using subjective instruments (questionnaires), and 2 studies used an objective instrument (actigraphy). Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common among Paralympic athletes, poor sleep quality and quantity, and high rates of daytime sleepiness. Subjective methods are most commonly used to assess sleep.

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Emma Streatch, Natasha Bruno, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Quality experiences in sport programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can promote physical and psychosocial benefits and long-term quality participation (QP). Unfortunately, children with ASD often experience sport participation barriers and, consequently, participate less in sport compared with children without disabilities. This study investigated QP priorities and strategies that could foster QP for children with ASD. Caregivers (n = 13), volunteers (n = 26), and staff (n = 14) involved in sport programming for children with ASD rated experiential elements of QP using the Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation. In addition , a two-round Delphi survey with staff (Round 1: n = 11; Round 2: n = 13) generated 22 strategies for promoting QP—each rated highly with regard to importance (5.69–6.85 on a 7-point scale). Strategies were substantiated with published research evidence. Findings informed the development of a QP tool designed to help instructors implement identified strategies in hopes of improving sport experiences for children with ASD.

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Ian Robertson, Marina Lazarides, and Cody R. Butler

Clinical Scenario: Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy has emerged as a viable treatment option to enhance clinical recovery in patients with primarily muscular injuries. However, BFR therapy has been rarely investigated in patients with osseous injuries to include extremity fracture. Focused Clinical Question: Does BFR-enhanced therapy improve clinical outcomes in patients during the acute to subacute rehabilitation period after extremity fracture? Summary of Key Findings: (1) In cases of 2 high-performing athletes with talus and osteochondral fracture of the knee, BFR was well tolerated and an effective rehabilitation regimen. (2) In 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating BFR use in patients after operative and nonoperative management of distal radius fractures, pain with activity and self-perceived function were improved in BFR-enhanced therapy as compared with a standard rehabilitation regimen. (3) Objective clinical outcomes including radiographic healing, extremity range of motion, and grip strength evaluated by the randomized controlled trials did not differ significantly between the BFR-enhanced and standard rehabilitation groups. Clinical Bottom Line: BFR-enhanced therapy may improve pain and self-perceived function of the injured extremity during the acute to subacute rehabilitation period after fracture. However, there is not yet a demonstrated benefit of BFR on hastening objective measures of clinical recovery. Large-scale clinical trials comparing BFR-enhanced rehabilitation with standard rehabilitation regimens are needed to better characterize BFR use in patients with osseous injuries. Strength of Recommendation: Two case reports and 2 randomized controlled trials provide level IIB evidence suggesting that BFR may improve pain in the acute rehabilitative stage and improve the patient’s perceived function of the injured extremity, without greater improvement in objectively measured clinical parameters as compared with a standard rehabilitation regimen.

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Shelby N. Anderson

Sport psychology scholars have long called for the field to take intersectional approaches to research and applied practice. Missing from this call is the study of intersectionality in the classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this practice paper is to provide a resource for sport psychology practitioners to take an intersectional approach in their teaching. First, the author provides a brief overview of intersectional theory and approaches to using anti-oppressive practices in the classroom. The author then reflects on their experience utilizing an intersectional lens as a neophyte instructor. Finally, the author discusses lessons learned from this teaching experience. This practice paper serves as a resource for sport psychology scholars and practitioners to integrate the study of intersectionality in their roles. While this paper is written for the higher education classroom, all readers will gain knowledge on intersectional theory and how it can be integrated in their scholarship or applied practice.

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Cheyanne Massie, Kelsey Redman, Samantha Casper, Danielle Wissink, Renee Dade, Anna Lowery, Kim Ross, Kanikkai Steni Balan Sackiriyas, and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

Altering running cadence is commonly done to reduce the risk of running-related injury/reinjury. This study examined how altering running cadence affects joint kinetic patterns and stride-to-stride kinetic variability in uninjured female runners. Twenty-four uninjured female recreational runners ran on an instrumented treadmill with their typical running cadence and with a running cadence that was 7.5% higher and 7.5% lower than typical. Ground reaction force and kinematic data were recorded during each condition, and principal component analysis was used to capture the primary sources of variability from the sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle moment time series. Runners exhibited a reduction in the magnitude of their knee extension moments when they increased their cadence and an increase in their knee extension moments when they lowered their cadence compared with when they ran with their typical cadence. They also exhibited greater stride-to-stride variability in the magnitude of their hip flexion moments and knee extension moments when they deviated from their typical running cadence (ie, running with either a higher or lower cadence). These differences suggest that runners could alter their cadence throughout a run in an attempt to limit overly repetitive localized tissue stresses.

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Travis R. Pollen, David Ebaugh, Jason Mohring, Dean Hutchinson, and Sheri P. Silfies

Context: Swimming technique is widely believed to influence performance, but this relationship has rarely been tested objectively using a real-time poolside assessment. Objective: To determine the (1) test–retest reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion validity (live vs video) of real-time poolside assessment of upper limb (UL) errors in front crawl (FC) swimming technique and (2) the relationship between UL errors and FC swimming performance. Design: Cross-sectional reliability, validity, and correlational study. Setting: Swim team practice at a college natatorium. Participants: Thirty-nine Division III college swimmers (21 women and 18 men, age = 19 [1] y, swimming experience = 11 [3] y). Main Outcome Measures: Seven UL errors in FC swimming technique, many of which involved unnecessary vertical and mediolateral motions, were assessed in real time from outside the pool during swim practice. Test–retest reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion validity were calculated using Cohen kappa (κ) and weighted kappa (κ w). Swimming performance was determined by the participants’ best FC events relative to the conference records. The correlation between total UL errors and FC swimming performance was assessed with Pearson r. Results: Cohen κ and κ w were moderate for the majority of errors, with the following ranges: 0.46 to 0.90 (test–retest), −0.01 to 1.00 (interrater), and 0.36 to 0.66 (criterion validity). There was a significant correlation between total UL errors and FC swimming performance: r(24) = −.59 (P = .001, R 2 = .35). Conclusions: Reliability and validity were moderate for the majority of errors. The fewer UL errors swimmers made while practicing FC, the faster their best FC race times tended to be relative to the conference record. UL errors in FC swimming technique explained 35% of the variance in performance.