Sport management classrooms prepare practitioners and decision makers to work in Sport for Development (SfD). A core issue within SfD is a lack of critical racial reflexivity, particularly with racially White professionals, which maintains inequitable power structures and keeps SfD programs from reaching their intended goal of facilitating positive outcomes. This study, informed by critical Whiteness studies, aimed to understand how White undergraduate sport management students critically reflected upon race while participating in an SfD service-learning course. Analyzing written reflections completed in the course, we found that students utilized Race Evasiveness and Race Explicitness, despite course content and SfD practice explicitly focused on race. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Max Klein, Garret J. Zastoupil, and Justin Evanovich
Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Soyeon Ahn, and Deborah L. Feltz
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the Köhler motivation effect in partnered dyads (conjunctive task structure) during exercise. This preregistered meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included 19 (total sample size N = 1,912) primary, peer-reviewed research articles that have reported the effectiveness of the Köhler effect paradigm (with a no-partner control condition) in exercise tasks on the outcome variable of intensity or persistence of effort. The overall motivation gain effect was statistically significant,
David K. Wiggins
This article assesses the life and career of George Powles, a legendary White youth sport and high school coach from Oakland, California. Born in 1910, Powles guided local American Legion, Babe Ruth, and Connie Mack baseball teams to various state, regional, and national titles and coached a plethora of outstanding athletes first at McClymonds High School, a predominantly Black institution in West Oakland and then later at Skyline High School, a predominantly White institution at the crest of the Oakland foothills, who would go onto legendary careers in professional sport. Among those he coached were iconic African American athletes who realized lasting fame for both their accomplishments on the playing field and involvement in the larger civil rights movement. Included among these athletes was Bill Russell, the Hall of Fame basketball player who led the University of San Francisco to successive National Collegiate Athletic Association national titles and the Boston Celtics to multiple National Basketball Association championships; Frank Robinson, the Hall of Fame baseball player and first African American to manage a Major League baseball team; Vada Pinson, the outstanding outfielder who played multiple years of Major League baseball; and Curt Flood, the gold-glove winning outfielder who famously challenged baseball’s reserve clause. In the end, Powles was a coach who served as an important mentor of Black athletes and believed strongly in sports power to bridge racial differences and instill important values and develop character among youth from all walks of life and cultural and socio-economic backgrounds.
Hsiang-Pin Chin and Ping-Chao Lee
This study explores the development of women’s physical education (PE) in Taiwanese schools during the Japanese colonial period. It seeks to understand how Japanese colonizers cultivated and shaped Taiwanese women’s bodies through PE in schools. First, Japanese colonizers faced the challenge of dismantling footbinding customs when implementing women’s PE and body engineering policies. However, when women were liberated from footbinding and the concept of natural feet emerged among the population, women’s PE came out of the shadow of footbinding. Second, as the natural feet generation arose, Taiwanese women started participating in physical activities and competitive sports while still abiding by the canons of the “Japanese woman.” Third, during the Pacific War, improving one’s physique and developing PE policies became part of a national defense strategy and the main focus in the process of producing imperial citizens. The body was given different meanings, yet its control and standardization were omnipresent under colonial governance.
Alison Fridley, Daniel Springer, Sarah Stokowski, and Arden Anderson
The revered tradition of amateurism has transformed due to legal and legislative challenges initiated by the name, image, and likeness landscape. In contrast to the traditional National Collegiate Athletic Association model, college athletes have now gained the opportunity to benefit financially from their notoriety by adopting an influencer role. The purpose of this manuscript was to explore the conceptual and theoretical shifts resulting from the introduction of the influencer role, considering the existing literature on athlete–student role theory. By achieving harmony between the athlete, student, and influencer roles, athletes should produce the most significant gains in each area, including academic performance, athletic achievement, and monetary benefit. However, greater psychological and sociological consequences may emerge for athletes if the influencer role further complicates the conflict between their athlete and student roles.
Rena M.G. Curvey, Shannon C. White, Candice N. Hargons, Myles T. Englis, Katherine C. Jensen, Marissa K. Bosco, Mikaela E. Thompson, Samantha Leavens, and Emily A. Murphy
The heteropatriarchal ideology undergirding sport has been recognized as a root cause of gender biases across multiple domains. Gender bias persists, although there is a growing number of female sport psychology practitioners entering the field. As such, continued exploration of the impact gender biases and stereotypes has on women’s career experiences remains necessary. Utilizing a feminist standpoint framework, the purpose of this research was to explore the career experiences of female sport psychology practitioners, centering the role of sexism. Seventeen cisgender female sport psychology practitioners participated in semistructured interviews from May 2021 to July 2021. Participants’ ages ranged from 24 to 46 years, with a mean age of 33.2 years, and years of applied experience ranged from 2 to 21 years, with a mean of 7.4 years. Reflective thematic analysis revealed five themes: (a) perceived lack of credibility, (b) compensation disparities, (c) sexist attitudes, (d) pregnancy and parenthood, and (e) advocating for self and others. Participants’ experiences suggest female sport psychology practitioners are confronted with blatant sexism in the workplace that poses professional challenges and career obstacles they have resiliently navigated. This study contributes to the growing body of literature pertaining to women in sport by purposefully exploring the juncture of gender with other identity factors (e.g., age, sexual orientation, and credibility).
Considering the inconsistency in the literature on crowdinvestment motivations and the uniqueness of football club investors, the purpose of this study is to identify the motivation to invest in football clubs through equity crowdfunding. Following Churchill’s scale development procedure, it is found that those who crowdinvest in football clubs are fans who highly identify with these teams. The fans’ motivations include supporting the cause of the campaign, acquiring the status of a football club owner, and gaining rewards. These findings show the dominance of intrinsic motivations among crowdinvestors of European football clubs, providing evidence for compensatory activities assumed in self-determination theory, which is the theoretical framework for this research. Moreover, we devise a motivation scale that can be adopted in future research on equity crowdfunding for football clubs. For sports managers, the results offer practical recommendations for marketing communication and relationship marketing of equity crowdfunding campaigns by football clubs.
Matt Ventresca and Samantha King
Drawing on an extensive archive of media texts collected between 2014 and 2019, we trace shifting representations of the National Football League in discourse on painkiller use among its players. We argue that in contrast to earlier eras, an image of the league as an exploitative and corrupt institution has come to the fore. Clustered around the announcement of a series of player lawsuits, these discourses are tempered by the persistence of narratives of personal responsibility and the elision of racial logics that predetermine athletes’ subjection to pain and injury. Situating our analysis in the context of the drug wars and the profit motive of the National Football League, we argue that these discourses both reflect and contribute to the workings of racial capitalism across the professional football and pharmaceutical industries.
Natalie Brown-Devlin, Michael B. Devlin, and Vincent Peña
To examine the relationship among identification, fan expectations, and sponsorship outcomes, this study examined Alabama and Clemson fan expectations and responses to the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football championship game outcome. This case study sought to understand how fans of winning and losing teams evaluated a sporting event’s sponsor following the conclusion of an event, positing that highly identified fans would demonstrate a halo effect, and report favorable attitudes toward the sponsoring brand as suggested by previous research. However, there is a lack of theoretical evidence regarding consumer expectations when applied within the context of sport. Thus, using the theoretical framework of identification and expectation violation theory, the authors inquired to what extent the outcome of the game and one’s expectations of the outcome influenced their evaluation of the event sponsor. The results support previous research regarding potential halo effects, but also add nuance to earlier work demonstrating that a halo effect is not unilaterally applied for all fans. Given the unpredictable nature of sport and the increasing cost of sponsoring sporting events, these findings help explain the extent to which violations of one’s expected outcome affect subsequent evaluations of a sponsor.