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Emma Streatch, Natasha Bruno, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Quality experiences in sport programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can promote physical and psychosocial benefits and long-term quality participation (QP). Unfortunately, children with ASD often experience sport participation barriers and, consequently, participate less in sport compared with children without disabilities. This study investigated QP priorities and strategies that could foster QP for children with ASD. Caregivers (n = 13), volunteers (n = 26), and staff (n = 14) involved in sport programming for children with ASD rated experiential elements of QP using the Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation. In addition , a two-round Delphi survey with staff (Round 1: n = 11; Round 2: n = 13) generated 22 strategies for promoting QP—each rated highly with regard to importance (5.69–6.85 on a 7-point scale). Strategies were substantiated with published research evidence. Findings informed the development of a QP tool designed to help instructors implement identified strategies in hopes of improving sport experiences for children with ASD.

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Louis Moustakas and John Bales

Sport coaching policies in Europe lack a guiding framework, and there is limited knowledge about good practices within those policies. This lack of guidance stands in stark contrast to the growing role and importance, from both a practical and a policy perspective, that coaches play in Europe. It is against this background that the Policy, Evidence, and Knowledge in Coaching (PEAK) project was initiated to strengthen the policy foundations of sports coaching in Europe. To do so, the Policy, Evidence, and Knowledge in Coaching project aimed to develop coaching policy recommendations for national authorities and sport federations on the European continent. In the following, we present the main policy recommendations for national authorities as well as the extensive process that led to the formulation of those recommendations. Based on this work, nine recommendations featuring a total of 61 indicators were developed. Overall, we contend that the policy foundation for an effective coaching system includes clarity on who the policies are for, how the results of the policy will be measured, the education, regulation, and support of the workforce, and addressing the inclusion of underrepresented groups.

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Cindy H.P. Sit, Wendy Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Venus M.H. Li

Background: Following the 2019 Hong Kong Para Report Card, the 2022 Hong Kong Para Report Card aimed to provide an updated and evidence-based assessment for nine indicators related to physical activity in children and adolescents with special educational needs and to assess the results using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Methods: Using a systematic process, the best available data on nine indicators were searched from the past 10 years and were assessed by a research work group. Letter grades were assigned and considered by stakeholders and auditors. Results: Four indicators were assigned a letter grade (overall physical activity: F [mixed device-measured and self-reported data]; sedentary behaviors: D [device-measured data]; active transportation: D−; government strategies & investment: C+). SWOT analysis highlighted opportunities for facilitating children and adolescents with special educational needs to achieve health recommendations. Conclusion: There were deteriorating trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Effective, multilevel, and cross-sector interventions are recommended to promote active behavior in children and adolescents with special educational needs.

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Gavin Thomas, Kathryn Devine, and Győző Molnár

Women continue to be underrepresented and underserved in the field of strength and conditioning (S&C), yet scholarly work examining the experiences and perceptions of women S&C coaches is limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the existing literature on women S&C coaches to identify current trends as well as knowledge gaps. Four electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete) were searched up to July 30, 2021. The initial search yielded 164 unique English-language papers, reviews, and book chapters. All in all, seven peer-reviewed articles were included, and data from these studies were charted. Each article offers insight into women’s experiences within the S&C industry, which are significantly different to their male counterparts. Based on our review of the findings, we recommend S&C coaches to participate in coach education programs and more women to be actively involved in the recruitment and hiring of S&C staff. While such findings are relevant, they have not fully explored the complexity of gender dynamics in S&C. Moreover, these recommendations will have limited long-term, sector-wide impact unless necessary policies are also implemented to help eradicate structure-level gender bias within the culture of S&C.

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Susann Arnell, Kajsa Jerlinder, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

Background: Participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism is often conditional. However, there is a lack of methods for identifying these specific conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a Q-sort tool to map individual-specific conditions for participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism and to identify different viewpoints regarding conditions for such participation. Method: An exploratory mixed-methods design was employed to investigate the feasibility of using Q methodology and the Q-sort procedure to identify what individual-specific conditions are important for participation in physical activity for adolescents with autism. Results: The adolescents ranked the statements with varying levels of ease. Two viewpoints were identified: Autonomous participation without surprises and Enjoyment of activity in a safe social context. Conclusion: Q-sort is a feasible method for mapping conditions for participation, which can guide the development of tailored physical activity interventions.

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Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Carmen Navarro-Mateos, and Isaac J. Pérez-López

Purpose: To examine the effects of a 14-week gamification-based physical education teaching program on fitness in college students. Method: A convenience sample of 112 college students (21.22 ± 2.55 years) was distributed among a gamification-based group or a control group (i.e., traditional teaching). College students from the gamification group used a game-based mobile app under the narrative of “STAR WARS™” with a countdown, so they had to gain lifetime. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Muscular fitness was measured by the handgrip strength and the standing broad jump tests. Results: Participants from the gamification program reported a significantly higher cardiorespiratory fitness and upper and lower body muscular fitness at postintervention, indicated by an effect size of 0.86 (p < .001), 0.18 (p = .018), and 0.52 (p < .001), respectively. Conclusion: Gamification can have an important implication on students’ motivation toward higher fitness.

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Charles S. Urwin, Rodney J. Snow, Dominique Condo, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Glenn D. Wadley, Lilia Convit, and Amelia J. Carr

This study compared the recommended dose of sodium citrate (SC, 500 mg/kg body mass) and sodium bicarbonate (SB, 300 mg/kg body mass) for blood alkalosis (blood [HCO3 ]) and gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS; number and severity). Sixteen healthy individuals ingested the supplements in a randomized, crossover design. Gelatin capsules were ingested over 15 min alongside a carbohydrate-rich meal, after which participants remained seated for forearm venous blood sample collection and completion of GIS questionnaires every 30 min for 300 min. Time-course and session value (i.e., peak and time to peak) comparisons of SC and SB supplementation were performed using linear mixed models. Peak blood [HCO3 ] was similar for SC (mean 34.2, 95% confidence intervals [33.4, 35.0] mmol/L) and SB (mean 33.6, 95% confidence intervals [32.8, 34.5] mmol/L, p = .308), as was delta blood [HCO3 ] (SC = 7.9 mmol/L; SB = 7.3 mmol/L, p = .478). Blood [HCO3 ] was ≥6 mmol/L above baseline from 180 to 240 min postingestion for SC, significantly later than for SB (120–180 min; p < .001). GIS were mostly minor, and peaked 80–90 min postingestion for SC, and 35–50 min postingestion for SB. There were no significant differences for the number or severity of GIS reported (p > .05 for all parameters). In summary, the recommended doses of SC and SB induce similar blood alkalosis and GIS, but with a different time course.