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Impact of Occupational Socialization on South Korean Physical Education Teachers’ Interpretation and Delivery of the Hanaro Teaching Model

Seungsoo Baek and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To determine the impact of occupational socialization on eight South Korean teachers’ interpretation and delivery of the Hanaro Teaching (HT) model. Method: Data were collected through formal interviews, film of teachers employing HT, document analysis, reflective journaling, and the critical incident technique. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: The teachers interpreted and delivered the HT model in four different ways. These were the full and full+ versions of the model, watered down, and taking a cafeteria approach. The organizational socialization phase was key in shaping how the teachers delivered the model. The teachers’ acculturation and professional socialization were mainly supplemental. Conclusions: The fact that seven of the teachers employed HT without any formal training suggests that the model was fairly easy to learn. Specific training in undergraduate physical education teacher education, however, could lead to more teachers employing the full and full+ versions of the model.

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Scholarly Book Reviews in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

Michael A. Hemphill

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Before-School Physical Activity Program on Middle School Students’ Social and Emotional Learning and Energy Levels

Tan Leng Goh and Chee Hoi Leong

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a before-school physical activity program on middle school students’ social and emotional learning (SEL) and their energy levels. Method: A total of 171 students (67 in program group; 104 in control group) participated in the study from fall 2019 to spring 2022. The physical education teacher implemented the program 3 days per week, for 8 weeks. The students completed a 17-item SEL assessment before and after the program. The program group also reported their energy levels using an energy meter at each session. Results: Students’ SEL in program group improved by 14% (p < .001) at the end of the program. Students also reported higher energy levels (p < .001) following their participation at each session. Discussion/Conclusion: Schools are encouraged to incorporate before-school physical activity programs to energize the students at the start of the school day and improve their SEL.

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Bridging Boundaries Between Life and Sport: Exploring Sports Coaches’ Micro Role Transitions

Paul A. Davis, Faye F. Didymus, Scott Barrass, and Louise Davis

Coach education notes the importance of effective transitions between life and sport, yet research evidence supporting coaches to make such transitions is lacking. The present study used a mixed-methods design to explore 41 highly qualified coaches’ perceptions of how responsibilities in life beyond sport spill over to coaching practice. Additionally, we examined coaches’ transitions between roles in life and sport and the implications for their health and coaching practice. Coaches completed questionnaires measuring perceived stress and emotion regulation, and a writing task about how roles outside of sport impacted their coaching practice. Linguistic analyses using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software revealed that coaches with lower levels of perceived stress expressed more positive emotions when writing about the influence of life commitments on their coaching practice. The findings also suggest that coaches’ perceptions of the coaching process can be both positively and negatively influenced by life commitments spilling over into sport. Further, coaches reported challenges with the process of undertaking micro role transitions and highlighted implications for their mental health, coaching effectiveness, and relationships in both sport and life. Integrating organizational and sport psychology research, we offer guidance to optimize coaches’ transitions between roles to promote health and optimal performance.

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The Day-by-Day Periodization Strategies of a Giro d’Italia Podium Finisher

Gabriele Gallo, Manuel Mateo-March, Andrea Fuk, Emanuela Faelli, Piero Ruggeri, Roberto Codella, and Luca Filipas

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the day-by-day training and racing characteristics in preparation for the Giro d’Italia of 1 world-class road cyclist who achieved a place on the podium in the final general classification of the Giro d’Italia. Methods: Day-by-day power meter training and racing data of 1 study subject (road cyclist; age 25 y; relative maximum oxygen consumption 81 mL·min−1·kg−1; relative 20-min record power output 6.6 W·kg−1) covering the 152 days leading up to the podium in the Giro d’Italia final general classification were retrospectively analyzed. Daily load, daily volume, and intensity distribution were considered. Results: During training a pattern alternating “hard days” versus “easy days” was observed, as significant amounts of medium or high intensity, or load, were not performed for more than 2 consecutive days This pattern was achieved combining high volume (>4 h) with a significant amount of medium and high intensity within the same training sessions. During training, when training load and intensity increased, the density of “easy days” augmented. In 1-week stage races and the Giro d’Italia, 3 to 8 consecutive days with significant amounts of medium and high intensity were performed. A high number of training sessions with small amounts of medium- and high-intensity volume was observed: 38 days accumulating 3 to 10 minutes at medium intensity and 29 days spending 1 to 9 minutes at high intensity. Conclusion: These data provide novel insights about the day-by-day periodization strategies leading to a top 3 in the Giro d’Italia general classification.

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Effect of Acute Sodium Bicarbonate and Caffeine Coingestion on Repeated-Sprint Performance in Recreationally Trained Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Carmen Ferragut, Paola Gonzalo-Encabo, Álvaro López-Samanes, David Valadés, and Alberto Pérez-López

Introduction: The acute and isolated ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and caffeine (CAF) improves performance and delays fatigue in high-intensity tasks. However, it remains to be elucidated if the coingestion of both dietary supplements stimulates a summative ergogenic effect. This study aimed to examine the effect of the acute coingestion of NaHCO3 and CAF on repeated-sprint performance. Methods: Twenty-five trained participants (age: 23.3 [4.0] y; sex [female/male]: 12/13; body mass: 69.6 [12.5] kg) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) -controlled, crossover study. Participants were assigned to 4 conditions: (1) NaHCO3 + CAF, (2) NaHCO3, (3) CAF, or (4) PLA. Thus, they ingested 0.3 g/kg of NaHCO3, 3 mg/kg of CAF, or PLA. Then, participants performed 4 Wingate tests (Wt), consisting of a 30-second all-out sprint against an individualized resisted load, interspersed by a 1.5-minute rest period between sprints. Results: Peak (Wpeak) and mean (Wmean) power output revealed a supplement and sprint interaction effect (P = .009 and P = .049, respectively). Compared with PLA, NaHCO3 + CAF and NaHCO3 increased Wpeak performance in Wt 3 (3%, P = .021) and Wt 4 (4.5%, P = .047), while NaHCO3 supplementation increased mean power performance in Wt 3 (4.2%, P = .001). In Wt 1, CAF increased Wpeak (3.2%, P = .054) and reduced time to Wpeak (−8.5%; P = .008). Plasma lactate showed a supplement plus sprint interaction (P < .001) when NaHCO3 was compared with CAF (13%, P = .031) and PLA (23%, P = .021). Conclusion: To summarize, although the isolated ingestion of CAF and NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance, the coingestion of both supplements did not stimulate a synergic ergogenic effect.

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A Self-Study of a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program Coordinator

Victoria N. Shiver, Kevin Andrew Richards, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: The teaching personal and social responsibility model has been incorporated into out of school time programming globally, but there is limited research focused on how practitioners learn to use the model. Guided by occupational socialization theory, the authors used self-study to understand the experiences of a doctoral student as she developed and implemented a teaching personal and social responsibility-based program in an elementary after-school program. Method: Data were collected through reflective journaling and critical friend discussions. Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in three turning points: (a) a planted seed needs light and rain, (b) an emerging bud with growing roots, and (c) rising in full bloom. High frustration was present at the start, but she grew to fully enjoy and utilize the model. Discussion/Conclusion: Self-study played a role in her ability to continue learning and growing. These findings reinforce the challenging but rewarding process of implementing novel instructional approaches.

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Cold Ambient Temperature Does Not Alter Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Blood Flow in Endurance-Trained Cyclists

Christopher W. Bach, Patrick G. Saracino, Daniel A. Baur, Brandon D. Willingham, Brent C. Ruby, and Michael J. Ormsbee

This study sought to investigate the effect of cold ambient temperature on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) lipolysis and blood flow during steady-state endurance exercise in endurance-trained cyclists. Ten males (age: 23 ± 3 years; peak oxygen consumption: 60.60 ± 4.84 ml·kg−1·min−1; body fat: 18.4% ± 3.5%) participated in baseline lactate threshold (LT) and peak oxygen consumption testing, two familiarization trials, and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling in COLD (3 °C; 42% relative humidity) and neutral (NEU; 19 °C; 39% relative humidity) temperatures. Exercise consisted of 25 min cycling at 70% LT and 25 min at 90% LT. In situ SCAAT lipolysis and blood flow were measured via microdialysis. Heart rate, core temperature, carbohydrate and fat oxidation, blood glucose, and blood lactate were also measured. Heart rate, core temperature, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate increased with exercise but were not different between COLD and NEU. SCAAT blood flow did not change from rest to exercise or between COLD and NEU. Interstitial glycerol increased during exercise (p < .001) with no difference between COLD and NEU. Fat oxidation increased (p < .001) at the onset of exercise and remained elevated thereafter with no difference between COLD and NEU. Carbohydrate oxidation increased with increasing exercise intensity and was greater at 70% LT in COLD compared to NEU (p = .030). No differences were observed between conditions for any other variable. Cycling exercise increased SCAAT lipolysis but not blood flow. Ambient temperature did not alter SCAAT metabolism, SCAAT blood flow, or fat oxidation in well-trained cyclists, though cold exposure increased whole-body carbohydrate oxidation at lower exercise intensities.

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Investigating Patterns of Donor and Recipient Sports of Talent Transfer Paralympians

Adeline Green, Rory Mulcahy, David Fleischman, Luke MacDonald, and Bridie Kean

Talent transfer has enabled elite athletes to be successful in another sport, with great potential in para-sport. Previous research suggests that similarities between donor and recipient sports may facilitate talent transfer; however, this remains unclear in para-sport. This study investigated patterns between donor and recipient sports’ characteristics, identifying the impact on talent transfer in para-sport. An Australian case study utilizing secondary data of 38 Australian Paralympians who competed at the Paralympic Games from 2000 through 2020 was analyzed. Results demonstrated that similarities between sports were not significantly associated with successful talent transfers between Paralympic sports. Understanding patterns associated with successful Paralympic talent transfers offers a foundation of knowledge for designing and developing future talent-transfer pathways and research. Based on this study, it is recommended that sport administrators and practitioners explore greater opportunity for talent transfer in para-sport, rather than limiting talent-transfer opportunities based on athletes’ donor sports.

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Variability Analysis in Judo Para Athletes With Visual Impairments: Match-Outcome Performance in the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games With Evidence From the New Classification System

Rafael Lima Kons, Danilo França Conceição dos Santos, Raiane Carvalho, Adriano Ferreira da Silva, João Paulo Lopes-Silva, Emerson Franchini, and Daniele Detanico

Match-related performance analysis in judo Para athletes with visual impairments is important to coaches and staff to identify technical–tactical profiles of their athletes and opponents but also to identify whether there are similar characteristics in each visual class. Thus, this study explores the match-related performance in judo Para athletes and verifies the relationship between performance using the old and new classification systems. The match-derived variables were analyzed using different statistical methods considering a total of 182 matches from the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. The results indicated that performance was affected by sex and degree of impairment. The new classification system seems suitable for grouping Para judo athletes, as it differentiates performance between the two proposed classes (J1 and J2), since athletes from each group compete separately. Furthermore, different variability index measures were correlated with competitive performance, demonstrating a specific performance profile for each sport class in judo.