Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke
This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.
Sinan Yildirim and Ziya Koruç
The current study focuses on the effect of transformational leadership on athletes’ performance in the mediation of psychological need satisfaction, burnout, competition anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive–negative affect. The sample consisted of 391 soccer players aged between 16 and 20 years. Six scales were used in this study: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Needs Satisfaction Scale, Athlete Burnout Measure, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, and Sport Competition Anxiety Test. The method of Vallerand was preferred to measure performance, and structural equation modeling was employed to analyze data. The model data fit was also verified. It was found that the transformational leadership behaviors of coaches signally influence athletes’ performance either directly or indirectly. From another perspective, increasing the psychological health or well-being of athletes has important effects on sport performance.
Pierpaolo Sansone, Alessandro Ceravolo, and Antonio Tessitore
Purpose: To quantify external, internal, and perceived training loads and their relationships in youth basketball players across different playing positions. Methods: Fourteen regional-level youth male players (age: 15.2 [0.3] y) were monitored during team-based training sessions across 10 in-season weeks. The players were monitored with BioHarness-3 devices, to measure external (Impulse Load, in Newtons per second) and internal (summated-heart-rate zones [SHRZ], in arbitrary units [AU]) loads, and with the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE, in AU) method to quantify perceived training load. Multiple linear mixed models were performed to compare training loads between playing positions (backcourt and frontcourt). Repeated-measures correlations were performed to assess the relationships between the load models, for all players and within playing positions. Results: External load (backcourt: 13,599  N·s; frontcourt: 14,934  N·s) and sRPE (backcourt: 345  AU; frontcourt: 505  AU) were higher in the frontcourt (P < .05, effect size: moderate), while SHRZ was similar between positions (backcourt: 239  AU; frontcourt: 247  AU) (P > .05; effect size: trivial). The correlations were as follows: large between the external load and SHRZ (r = .57, P < .001), moderate between SHRZ and sRPE (r = .45, P < .001), and small between the external load and sRPE (r = .26, P = .02). The correlation magnitudes were equivalent for external load–SHRZ (large) and SHRZ–sRPE (moderate) across positions, but different for the external load–sRPE correlation (small in backcourt; moderate in frontcourt). Conclusions: In youth basketball, small–large commonalities were found between the training dose (external load) and players’ responses (internal and perceived loads). Practitioners should carefully manage frontcourt players’ training loads because they accumulate greater external and perceived loads than backcourt players do.
Suzanna Russell, David G. Jenkins, Shona L. Halson, Laura E. Juliff, Mark J. Connick, and Vincent G. Kelly
Purpose: Mental fatigue is emerging as an important consideration for elite sporting performance, yet it is rarely monitored. The present study assessed changes in mental fatigue in professional team-sport athletes across 2 seasons and examined the relationship between mental fatigue and other athlete self-report measures of well-being. Methods: Elite netballers contracted to all teams competing in Australia’s premier professional netball competition during the 2018 and 2019 seasons (N = 154) participated. Using 5-point Likert scales, mental fatigue, fatigue (physical), tiredness, sleep quality, stress, mood, and motivation were assessed daily across 2 seasons composed of 14 round and finals series. Results: The ratings of mental fatigue significantly changed during both seasons. In 2018, lower ratings of mental fatigue were reported in round 1 versus 3, 4, 6, 8, and 14; round 7 versus 6; and round 6 versus 10 (P < .05). In 2019, lower ratings of mental fatigue were identified for round 1 versus 3, 9, 10 to 14, and semifinal; round 2 versus 10 to 13; and 5 versus 10 to 12 (P < .05). Ordinal regression revealed significant differences between mental fatigue and physical fatigue (P < .001), tiredness (P < .001), stress (P < .001), mood (P < .001), and motivation (P < .05). Conclusions: The present study found mental fatigue to significantly fluctuate across a season in elite netballers. Moreover, perceived mental fatigue differed from physical fatigue, tiredness, stress, mood, and motivation. The data impress the need for mental fatigue to be included as an independent measure of athlete well-being. Monitoring of mental fatigue can allow practitioners to implement strategies to manage its influence on performance.
K. Andrew R. Richards and James D. Ressler
Purpose: Scholars, including those in physical education, have investigated the socialization of higher education faculty members. Informed by self-study of teacher education practices and occupational socialization theory, we aimed to understand Kevin’s experiences during a transition from one institution to another with the help of his critical friend, Jim. Methodology/Methods: Data were collected through prolonged journaling and critical friend discussions. Resulting text files were analyzed thematically with a focus on identifying turning points. Findings: Themes developed through qualitative analysis included: (a) readjusting scholarly targets and embracing grantspersonship, (b) giving up control and facilitating research, and (c) balancing being a team player with self-advocacy. Discussion/Conclusions: Kevin’s transition was supported by recognizing shifting norms of his new faculty role and influence of self-study of teacher education practices for ongoing, career professional development. Prior and current socialization influences framed this development.