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Changes in Hip Isometric Strength of Female College Soccer Players After High-Workload Training Session

Maxine Furtado Mesa, Jeffrey R. Stout, L. Colby Mangum, Kyle S. Beyer, Michael J. Redd, and David H. Fukuda

Context: The hip adductor and abductor muscles play vital roles as stabilizers in the lower-extremity. Their activation during soccer-specific actions is essential, but local muscular fatigue can hinder athletic performance and increase the risk of injury. Design: This study aimed to observe the variations in frontal plane hip strength in female college soccer players before and after a high-workload soccer-specific training session. Furthermore, the study sought to compare the relative changes in hip strength with the internal and external load measures obtained during that session. Methods: Twenty female college soccer players participated in a retrospective observational study. Isometric hip adductor and abductor strength were measured before and after a training session in the college spring season. Measurements were taken with a handheld dynamometer (MicroFET 2) while the players were supine. Global positioning system sensors (Catapult Vector S7), commonly worn by players during training sessions and competitive matches, were used to measure external and internal loads. Statistical analyses were performed using paired samples t test to assess hip adductor and abductor strength changes before and after the training session. Spearman rank was used to identify correlation coefficients between global positioning system data and isometric hip strength. Results: The findings revealed significant decreases in the strength of the right hip adduction (P = .012, −7% relative change), right abduction (P = .009, −7.6% relative change), and left abduction (P = .016, −4.9% relative change) after the training session. Furthermore, relative decreases in hip isometric adduction and abduction strength are related to the distance covered at high speeds. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight that hip isometric adduction and abduction strength tend to decrease after exposure to high workloads during soccer-specific training.

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Does a Hip Muscle Activation Home Exercise Program Change Movement Patterns on the Forward Step-Down Test?

Erin McCallister, Caroline Hughs, Mia Smith, and Daniel W. Flowers

Context: Poor knee biomechanics contribute to knee joint injuries. Neuromuscular control over knee position is partially derived from the hip. It is unknown whether isolated activation training of the gluteal muscles improves lower-extremity frontal plane mechanics. This study examined if a home-based hip muscle activation program improves performance on the Forward Step-Down Test as well as increases surface electromyography (sEMG) activation of the gluteal muscles. Design: The study utilized a single-group repeated-measures design. Methods: Thirty-five participants (24 females, mean age = 23.17 [SD 1.36] years) completed an 8-week hip muscle activation program. The Forward Step-Down Test score and sEMG of gluteus maximus and medius were assessed preintervention and postintervention. Results: Forward Step-Down Test scores improved significantly from preintervention (Mdn = 3.5) to postintervention (Mdn = 3.0, T = 109, P = .010, r = .31.), but this result did not meet clinical significance. sEMG analysis revealed a significant increase in mean gluteus maximus activation (P = .028, d = 1.19). No significant dose–response relationship existed between compliance and the Forward Step-Down Test scores or sEMG results. Conclusions: A home-based hip activation program increases gluteus maximus activation without clinically significant changes in frontal plane movement quality. Future studies may find clinical relevance by adding motor learning to the activation training program to improve functional muscle use.

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Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Reducing Pain and Increasing Function After Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain: A Critically Appraised Topic

Erin Frey, Christopher D. Brown, and Brady Tripp

Clinical Scenario: Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in athletics, and many lead to recurrent sprains, chronic ankle instability, and persistent symptoms. Treatment improvements are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) involves formulating autologous plasma with higher platelet concentration to be injected in the desired tissue. There is currently high-quality evidence supporting the use of PRP with lateral epicondylitis and knee osteoarthritis to accelerate the healing process and decrease pain. Clinical Question: Does the injection of PRP relieve pain faster and improve function compared with no injection or placebo in patients with a lateral ankle sprain? Summary of Key Findings: A computerized search yielded 191 studies; of these, 3 studies fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria. PRP injection reduces pain and increases function after lateral ankle sprain 5 to 8 weeks after intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: The use of PRP after lateral ankle sprain to decrease pain and increase function is supported with moderate evidence. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, evidence from the included studies is considered as level B, reflecting limited quality patient-oriented evidence.

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The Effects of Augmenting Balance Training with Stroboscopic Goggles on Postural Control in Chronic Ankle Instability Patients: A Critically Appraised Topic

Joshua S. Mohess, Hyunwook Lee, Serkan Uzlaşir, and Erik A. Wikstrom

Clinical Scenario: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) typically complete balance training protocols to improve postural control and reduce recurrent injury risk. However, the presence of CAI persists after traditional balance training protocols suggesting that such programs may be missing elements that could be beneficial to patients. Visual occlusion modalities, such as stroboscopic goggles, may be able to augment balance training exercises to further enhance postural control gains in those with CAI. However, a cumulative review of the existing evidence has yet to be conducted. Focused Clinical Question: Does wearing stroboscopic goggles during balance training result in greater improvements to postural control than balance training alone in those with CAI? Summary of Key Findings: All 3 studies indicated that the stroboscopic goggles group had statistically significant improvements in either a measure of static or dynamic postural control relative to the standard balance training group. However, significant improvements were not consistent across all postural control outcomes assessed in the included studies. Clinical Bottom Line: Postural control may improve more in those with CAI when stroboscopic goggles were worn while completing balance training exercises relative to completing balance training exercises alone. Strength of Recommendation: Overall, consistent moderate- to high-quality evidence was present in the 3 studies, suggesting grade C evidence for the use of stroboscopic goggles during balance training in those with CAI.

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Respiratory Muscle Training in Para-Athletes: A Systematic Review on the Training Protocols and Effects on Reported Outcomes

Buket Akinci, Cigdem Emirza Cilbir, Ahmet Kocyigit, and Goksen Kuran Aslan

Context and Objectives: Respiratory muscle training (RMT) is considered an effective tool to improve cardiorespiratory limitations in athletes. The goals of this systematic review were to explore the role of RMT and its implementation within sport rehabilitation programs in para-athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Several databases were searched until January 2024. Eligible studies were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Quality assessment was made using the PEDro scale and version 2 of the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for Randomized Trials. Eight studies (a total of 108 participants) were selected for the analysis. Evidence Synthesis: Five studies preferred using resistive loading, while 2 studies used normocapnic hyperpnea, and 1 study used threshold inspiratory muscle training. Respiratory functions (respiratory muscle strength and endurance, spirometry measures) and exercise performance were assessed as the main outcomes. Significant increases in respiratory muscle strength were reported in 5 studies. Two studies observed improvement in respiratory muscle endurance and 3 studies reported increased exercise capacity. Conclusions: This review suggests that although RMT can enhance respiratory muscle strength and endurance, it should not be considered the primary method for boosting the exercise performance of para-athletes. Additional research is necessary to explore the impact of various RMT techniques on different outcomes from the perspective of sport rehabilitation in para-athletes.

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Erratum. Analyzing Dual-Task Paradigms to Improve Postconcussion Assessment and Management

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Erratum. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis to Reduce Pain in Tendinopathies: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Do Motor–Cognitive and Motor–Motor Dual-Task Training Differently Affect Dual-Task Interference in Individuals With Intellectual Disability?

Rihab Borji, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sirine Falhi, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

This study explored the effect of different dual-task (DT) training programs on DT interference in adults with intellectual disability. Center-of-pressure (CoP) mean velocity in single-task (ST) and cognitive-DT conditions and the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) during ST, cognitive-DT, and motor-DT conditions were assessed before and after intervention in a cognitive–motor training group, a motor–motor training group, and a control group. Before training, CoP mean velocity and TUGT time increased (p < .001) in DT compared with the ST condition. After training, the CoP mean velocity values remained unchanged (p = .07) in DT compared with the ST condition among the cognitive–motor training group. Furthermore, compared with the ST condition, no increase (p = 1) was reported in the TUGT time during the cognitive-DT condition for the cognitive–motor training group and during the motor-DT for the motor–motor training group (p = .12). The effect of DT training on DT interference depends on the training modality.

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Evaluating the Validity of Tests to Predict Sprint and Change of Direction Speed in Para-Athletes With Brain Impairments

Raul Reina, Emma M. Beckman, Mark J. Connick, Jemima G. Spathis, and Sean M. Tweedy

Maximum running speed is a performance determinant in para-athletics and cerebral palsy football. Sixty international para-athletes with brain impairments completed five activity-limitation tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, 10-m speed skip, and running in place) and two criterion tests (40-m sprint and modified agility test). The same three tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, and 10-m speed skip) that correlated with running performance in nondisabled runners (.67 < r < −.82; p < .05; 75% of variance) also correlated in para-athletes with brain impairments (.41 < r <  −.62; p < .01; 55% of variance). Standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, and running in place also correlated with change-of-direction speed (.43 < r <  −.63; p < .01; 58% of variance). Results indicate that methods of classification for para-athletics with nondisabled runners are also valid with para-athletes with brain impairments, and new sport-specific relationships were found for assessing the performance of rapid and short sprints toward different directions, specific of a team para-sport like cerebral palsy football.

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Impact of Sport Engagement and Social Support on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Youth Athletes With Physical Disabilities

Myung Ha Sur, Deborah R. Shapiro, and Jeffrey Martin

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multidimensional concept focusing on the impact of health status on quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine if sport engagement and sport-specific social support predicted HRQOL among adolescents with physical disabilities. Sixty-eight participants completed surveys assessing sport engagement, sport-specific social support, and HRQOL. Participants had moderate to high perceptions of sport engagement, social support, and HRQOL supporting the affirmation model of disability. Based on a canonical correlation, esteem, information, and tangible social support and sport engagement—confidence—were the strongest predictor variables of the sport engagement/social support variant, which was linked to the HRQOL variant predicted by emotional, social, and school functioning. The findings support the importance of social support and confidence in the sport context for the HRQOL of youth with physical disabilities.