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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST, VOLUME 11 ISSUE 1

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Volume 11 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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Exploring the Multidimensional Model of Leadership Through the Lens of Coaches: An Examination of the Relationship Between Personality, Leader Behaviors, and the Coach–Athlete Relationship

Shelby N. Anderson, Sebastian Harenberg, Maggie Nieto, and Justine Vosloo

The Multidimensional Model of Leadership hypothesizes that leader personality characteristics impact leader behaviors, which in turn influence collective and individual outcomes. While the Multidimensional Model of Leadership has received substantial research attention over the past four decades, the full hypothesis including antecedents, throughputs, and outputs has rarely been tested in one study. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to test the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive personality characteristics (i.e., perfectionism and passion), leader behaviors, and the coach–athlete relationship in college coaches. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches (N = 380) completed the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2, the Passion Scale, the Leadership Scale for Sports, and the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that perfectionism and passion accounted for 65% of the variance for leader behaviors. Specifically, adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and passion positively predicted leader behaviors, whereas maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism negatively predicted leader behaviors. Furthermore, leader behaviors explained over half the variance of the coach–athlete relationship. The results provide support for the Multidimensional Model of Leadership from the perspective of sport coaches. Applied implications for coaches and sport psychology practitioners are discussed.

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The Inducers of an Elite Male Table Tennis Player’s Emotional Experience Throughout His Career: A Single Case Study Based on the Critical-Incident Method

Oriane Petiot, Gilles Kermarrec, Jérôme Visioli, and Guillaume Martin

Despite a growing interest in emotions in sport psychology, little has been written about the contextual elements triggering athletes’ emotional experience. This single case study aimed to analyze the inducers of an elite table tennis player’s emotional experience throughout his career. He was ranked among the 15 best players in the world, and his career spanned more than 20 years. Inspired by the critical-incident method, we conducted a lengthy interview with the player, during which he related the most significant moments of his career. The categorization of the 96 critical incidents collected highlighted four inducers of positive emotions and five inducers of negative emotions, emerging over five periods (exponential progression, first difficulties, major difficulties, second career, and end of career). These findings contribute to the development of an innovative single-case-study design, allowing an understanding of the contextual origin of athletes’ emotions over the long term. Finally, highlights are discussed and recommendations for the practice of sport psychology are formulated.

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“PE Is More Than Playing Kick Ball the Entire Hour”: Using Standards-Based Grading to Elevate Physical Education’s Status Among Preservice Physical Educators

Matt Townsley and Scott W.T. McNamara

Purpose: This study sought to examine how preservice physical educators conceptualize and intend to use standards-based grading (SBG) after receiving a 1-hr workshop on implementing SBG into a physical education (PE) setting. Method s: Using a qualitative descriptive approach, the researchers utilized class reflection assignments, a perceptions survey, and interviews with 10 undergraduate physical educators at a Midwestern university. Findings: The SBG workshop positively influenced participants’ views of the importance of PE, enhanced their attitudes toward organized and meaningful instructional planning, and shaped participants’ perceived norms and level of control when implementing SBG in their future classrooms. Discussion/Conclusion: SBG provides a means for preservice physical educators to validate their field and area of study and to visualize the interconnectedness of teaching, learning, and assessment within PE.

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Managing the Complexity: An Ethnographic Approach to Understanding Noticing Within Orchestration

Aubrey Newland and Lori A. Gano-Overway

Sport coaching is an inherently complex endeavor. To manage this complexity, some coaches engage in orchestration to plan, organize, monitor, and respond to the dynamic sport environment. Using an ethnographic approach, the current research aimed to understand how a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II female basketball coach orchestrated the complex and relational nature of coaching over the course of a sport season and with particular attention to how noticing occurred and informed orchestration. A combination of formal and informal coach and player interviews, observation and field notes, and audio reflections of the coach was carried out over the course of the season. The authors used a realist tale to illustrate the complexity of the coaching experience and how the coach used noticing and relational schemas to navigate ambiguity, the micropolitical landscape, and interpersonal relationships to steer the team toward personal growth and high performance.

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Martial Arts and Combat Sports for Youth: A 10-Year Scoping Review

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are lifelong nontraditional activities seldom available for youth in school settings. Research has found that MA&CS can promote a variety of benefits to youth with novel experiences that promote nonviolent, psychological, affective, cognitive, and physical outcomes. Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and categorize the peer-reviewed research with a pedagogical focus on MA&CS for youth across 10 years. Methods: The key terms used related to MA&CS and young people. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping review guidelines and included peer-reviewed empirical articles from six databases in English and Portuguese from 2013 to 2022. Results: The Results section was divided into a quantitative description of the literature analyzed and a discussion of the psychological, social, affective, physical, cognitive, and academic benefits of MA&CS interventions. Conclusion: MA&CS interventions can provide multiple benefits for youth in physical education and out-of-school settings.

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Peak Performance: Characteristics and Key Factors in the Development of the World Top-8 Swimmers Based on Longitudinal Data

Yuming Chen, Chenbin Huang, Hui Chen, Ting Huang, Christine Su, and Jiexing Chen

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the peak performance characteristics of the world top-8 swimmers and the key factors involved in the journey toward achieving better peak performance. Methods: The results of the world top-8 swimmers from 2001 to 2022 were collected from the World Aquatics performance database. Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories (1191 cases). Utilizing k-means clustering to group competitive feature variables, this study investigated key developmental factors through a binary logistic regression model, using the odds ratio (OR) to represent whether a factor was favorable (OR > 1) or unfavorable (OR < 1). Results: Significant differences (P < .001) in the peak age between men (23.54/3.80) and women (22.31/4.60) were noticed, while no significant differences (P > .05) in the peak-performance window for both sexes appeared. Peak performance occurred at later ages for the sprint for both sexes, and women had a longer duration in peak-performance window for sprint (P < .05). Peak-performance occurred at later ages for the breaststroke and butterfly for both sexes (P < .05). Binary logistic regression revealed that high first-participation performance (OR = 1.502), high major-competition performance (OR = 4.165), early first-major-competition age (OR = 1.441), participation frequency above 4 times/year in both phase 2 (4.3–8.0 times/y, OR = 3.940; 8.1–20.0 times/y, OR = 5.122) and phase 3 (4.1–7.5 times/y: OR = 5.548; 7.7–15.0 times/y: OR = 7.526), and a career length of 10 years or more (10–15 y, OR = 2.102; 16–31 y, OR = 3.480) were favorable factors for achieving better peak performance. Conclusions: Peak performance characteristics varied across sex, swimming stroke, and race distance in the world top-8 swimmers. Meanwhile, the research indicated that certain specific developmental factors were key conditions for the world top-8 swimmers to achieve better peak performance in the future.

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Which Strength Manifestation Is More Related to Regional Swimmers’ Performance and In-Water Forces? Maximal Neuromuscular Capacities Versus Maximal Mechanical Maintenance Capacity

Sergio Miras-Moreno, Óscar López-Belmonte, Amador García-Ramos, Raúl Arellano, and Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro

Purpose: To explore the association of the load–velocity (L-V) relationship variables and ability to maintain maximal mechanical performance during the prone bench-pull exercise with sprint swimming performance and in-water forces. Methods: Eleven competitive adult male swimmers (50-m front crawl World Aquatics points: 488 [66], performance level 4) performed 1 experimental session. The L-V relationship variables (L 0 [ie,  maximal theoretical load at 0 velocity]; v 0 [ie, maximal theoretical velocity at 0 load], and A line [ie, area under the L-V relationship]) and maximal mechanical maintenance capacity were assessed at the beginning of the session. Afterward, sprint swimming performance and in-water force production were tested through a 50-m front-crawl all-out trial and 15-s fully-tethered swimming, respectively. Results: Only v 0 presented high positive associations with 50-m time and swimming kinematics (r > .532; P < .046). The L 0, v 0, and A line showed very high positive associations with the in-water forces during tethered swimming (r > .523; P < .049). However, the ability to maintain maximal mechanical performance, assessed by the mean velocity decline during the prone bench pull, was only significantly correlated with stroke rate (r = −.647; P = .016) and stroke index (r = .614; P = .022). Conclusions: These findings indicate that maximal neuromuscular capacities, especially v 0, have a stronger correlation with swimming performance and in-water force production than the ability to maintain maximal mechanical performance in level 4 swimmers.