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Sida Chen, Zixue Tai, and Jianping Liu

Background: Tai Ji Quan (TJQ) has broad appeal to people of all ages and backgrounds. This study aimed to examine a variety of individual and environmental factors in the dissemination of TJQ to diverse practicing communities in China. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was utilized in the research design. Quantitative data were collected via an online survey using a national sample (N = 737), whereas qualitative data came from focus groups and in-depth interviews. Analysis was performed along the RE-AIM dimensions of reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results: We divided TJQ experience into 4 distinct categories (nonlearners, current learners, quitters, and retainers) and observed significant patterns of variation along lines of occupation groups and age cohorts. A significant male/female difference was detected in TJQ experience among college students but not the general public, and having practicing family members was an important predictor of personal TJQ history. Varied TJQ experience has a significant impact on perceptions of TJQ’s miscellaneous values as well as level of satisfaction with its health outcomes. Conclusions: Both individual (personal) and environmental (settings) factors are important in shaping personal decisions in TJQ engagement. An ecological approach coordinating individual factors and settings resources is essential in promoting TJQ to the general population.

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Brittany F. Drazich, Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Nayeon Kim, Rachel McPherson, Jeanette Ellis, Jasmine Phun, and Ashley Kuzmik

Older adults continue to spend little time engaged in physical activity when hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe activity among hospitalized older adults with dementia and (b) identify the association between specific factors (gender, ambulation independence, comorbidities, race, and hospital setting) and their physical activity. This descriptive study utilized baseline data on the first 79 participants from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care using the Evidence Integration Triangle. Multiple linear regression models were run using accelerometry data from the first full day of hospitalization. The participants spent an average of 83.7% of their time being sedentary. Male gender, ambulation independence, and hospital setting (the hospital in which the patient was admitted) were associated with greater activity. This study reports on the limited time spent in activity for older adults with dementia when hospitalized and highlights patient profiles that are particularly vulnerable to sedentary behavior in the hospital setting.

Open access

Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah, Signe de Place Knudsen, Caroline Borup Roland, Ida-Marie Hergel, Stig Molsted, Tine D. Clausen, Ellen Løkkegaard, Jane M. Bendix, Ralph Maddison, Marie Löf, Jakob Eg Larsen, Gerrit van Hall, and Bente Stallknecht

Background: Activity trackers and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) measures physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED). However, none of these tools have been validated against a criterion method in pregnancy. We aimed to compare a consumer activity tracker and the Danish version of PPAQ (PPAQ-DK) and to validate them using the doubly labeled water technique (DLW) as criterion method. Methods: A total of 220 healthy pregnant women participated. Total energy expenditure (TEE), PA energy expenditure (PAEE), and PA level were determined at gestational Weeks 28–29 using DLW and a Garmin Vivosport (Garmin, Olathe, KS) activity tracker. In addition, PAEE, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA, and SED were determined using the activity tracker and PPAQ-DK during all three trimesters. Results: TEE from the activity tracker and DLW correlated (r = .63; p < .001), but the activity tracker overestimated TEE (503 kcal/day). Also, the activity tracker overestimated PAEE (303 kcal/day) and PA level compared with DLW. Likewise, PPAQ-DK overestimated PAEE (1,513 kcal/day) compared with DLW. Compared to PPAQ-DK, the activity tracker reported lower values of PAEE and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA and higher values of SED during all three trimesters. Conclusions: When compared to DLW, we found better agreement of PAEE estimates from the activity tracker than from PPAQ-DK. TEE from the tracker and DLW correlated moderately well, but this was not the case for PAEE or PA level. The activity tracker measured lower PA and higher SED than PPAQ-DK throughout pregnancy. The consumer activity tracker performed better than the questionnaire, but both significantly overestimated PA compared to DLW.

Free access

Monica Muti, Lisa J. Ware, Lisa K. Micklesfield, Michele Ramsay, Godfred Agongo, Palwende R. Boua, Isaac Kisiangani, Ian Cook, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Nigel J. Crowther, Chodziwadziwa Kabudula, Shane A. Norris, and Tinashe Chikowore

Background: This study aimed to explore association of self-reported physical activity domains of work, leisure, and transport-related physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in 9388 adult men and women from the Africa-Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic (AWI-Gen) study in Africa. Africa-Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic is a large, population-based cross-sectional cohort with participants from 6 sites from rural and urban areas in 4 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: A sex-stratified meta-analysis of cross-sectional data from men and women aged 29–82 years was used to assess the association of physical activity with BMI. Results: Overall, meeting physical activity guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week was associated with 0.82 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (β = −0.80 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.14 to −0.47) and 0.68 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (β = −0.68 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.33). Sex and site-specific differences were observed in the associations between physical activity domains and BMI. Among those who met physical activity guidelines, there was an inverse association between transport-related physical activity and BMI in men from Nanoro (Burkina Faso) (β = −0.79 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.25 to −0.33) as well as work-related physical activity and BMI in Navrongo men (Ghana) (β = −0.76 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.25 to −0.27) and Nanoro women (β = −0.90 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.44 to −0.36). Conclusions: Physical activity may be an effective strategy to curb rising obesity in Africa. More studies are needed to assess the impact of sex and geographic location-specific physical activity interventions on obesity.

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Takuro Ohtsubo, Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, and Katsuhiro Ueno

This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) as measured using accelerometers, and functional improvement measured using a short physical performance battery in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. After admission to the rehabilitation hospital, patients were categorized into quartile groups based on their level of PA measured using accelerometers. The primary outcome was physical function measured using the short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. A total of 204 patients were included in the analysis. After adjusting for confounding factors, light-intensity PA (p < .001) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (p < .001) were associated with a short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. In conclusion, PA at admission is positively associated with functional improvement in older patients undergoing hospital rehabilitation.

Free access

Heidi Stanish, Samantha M. Ross, Byron Lai, Justin A. Haegele, Joonkoo Yun, and Sean Healy

The U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has tracked 10 physical activity (PA) indicators common to the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix since 2014. This article expands on the U.S. report cards by presenting PA indicator assessments among children and adolescents with disabilities. Grades for indicators were assigned based on a search of peer-reviewed articles presenting nationally representative data. The Global Matrix 3.0 benchmarks and grading framework guided the process. Grades for overall PA, sedentary behaviors, organized sports, and school were F, D+, D+, and D, respectively. Insufficient evidence existed to assign grades to the remaining six indicators. There is a need in the United States for targeted PA promotion strategies that are specific to children and adolescents with disabilities. Without a commitment to this effort across sectors and settings, the low grades identified in this para report card are expected to remain.

Free access

Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.

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Kristin Manz, Alexander Burchartz, Claudia Niessner, Simon Kolb, Anja Schienkiewitz, and Gert B.M. Mensink

Background: Incomplete data due to nonparticipation and noncompliance with the study protocol can bias the results of studies. We investigated how a nationwide accelerometer sample of adolescents and young adults is affected by such incomplete data. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6465 participants (11–31 y old) who participated in a national health survey in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2; 2014–2017). The data included information about the participation in the measurement of physical activity using accelerometers, compliance with the wear-time protocol, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to detect factors associated with incomplete data. Results: Of the total sample, 78.0% participated in the accelerometer part of the study, and 83.5% of the participants with data available complied with the wear-time protocol. In 11- to 17-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in boys, older adolescents, adolescents with a lower sociodemographic status, adolescents with overweight, adolescents not participating in organized sport, adolescents not speaking only German at home, current smokers, and adolescents having a higher soft drink consumption. In 18- to 31-year-olds, the likelihood of having incomplete accelerometer data was higher in men, adults with a lower educational level, adults not speaking only German at home, and adults who smoke. Conclusions: Our results suggest that accelerometer samples are biased such that participants with more beneficial health behaviors provide complete accelerometer data more often. This knowledge should be used to design effective recruitment strategies and should be considered when interpreting results of accelerometer studies.

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Brantley K. Ballenger, Emma E. Schultz, Melody Dale, Bo Fernhall, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

This systematic review examined whether physical activity interventions improve health outcomes in adults with Down syndrome (DS). We searched PubMed, APA PsycInfo, SPORTDiscus, APA PsycARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection using keywords related to DS and physical activity. We included 35 studies published in English since January 1, 1990. Modes of exercise training programs included aerobic exercise, strength training, combined aerobic and strength training, aquatic, sport and gaming, and aerobic and strength exercise interventions combined with health education. The evidence base indicates that aerobic and strength exercise training improve physical fitness variables including maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, upper and lower body strength, body weight, and body fat percentage. Sport and gaming interventions improve functional mobility, work task performance, and sport skill performance. We concluded that adults with DS can accrue health benefits from properly designed physical activity and exercise interventions.