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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST, VOLUME 11 ISSUE 1

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Volume 11 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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The Limitations of Systematic Reviews With Meta-Analyses in Sport Science

Daniel Boullosa, David Behm, Sebastián Del Rosso, Moritz Schumann, Kenji Doma, and Carl Foster

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Value Creation in a Coach Developer Social Learning Space: Stories of Openness and Making a Difference

Don Vinson, Andrew Bradshaw, and Andrew Cale

Previous studies concerning coach developer learning have demonstrated notable deficiencies in the provision offered to practitioners, commonly reporting what they experienced was prescriptive instruction on how to deliver coach education courses—a practice starkly in contrast to the espoused theoretical underpinnings of the courses themselves. This Participatory and Appreciative Action and Reflection investigation aimed to better understand the value created for, and through, 10 participants recruited to a 9-month coach developer professional development program that was designed not to prescribe, but to guide, their learning. Data were collected through individual and group interviews, field notes, and professional discussions. Additionally, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which the identification of short and long value flows could provide insight into coach developer learning. Two main themes were constructed, namely (a) openness to finding new ways of developing others and (b) making a difference. Embracing the concepts of value creation, as well as short and long value flows, illuminated the importance of consideringcoach developers’ predispositions, nonprescribed guidance by program facilitators, and the power of value creation stories. These findings illustrate how value creation concepts can potentially help to understand coach developer learning.

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Contaminants in Dietary Supplements: Toxicity, Doping Risk, and Current Regulation

Jesús Zapata-Linares and Guillermo Gervasini

Athletes, both amateur and professional, often resort to the consumption of nutritional supplements without professional supervision and without being aware of the risks they may entail. We conducted an exhaustive literature search to determine the most common substances found as contaminants in dietary supplements. For each substance, we analyzed its mechanism of action, clinical indication, health risk, and putative use as doping agent. In addition, we evaluated the current regulation of these supplements. Contamination of nutritional supplements (accidental or intentional), especially with steroids and stimulants, is a hazardous situation. The prolonged consumption of these products without being aware of their composition can cause serious health risks and, in the case of professional athletes, a possible sanction for doping.

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Effect of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Hormonal Contraceptives on Resting Metabolic Rate and Body Composition

Megan A. Kuikman, Alannah K.A. McKay, Clare Minahan, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, Rachel McCormick, Nicolin Tee, Jessica Skinner, Kathryn E. Ackerman, and Louise M. Burke

The cyclical changes in sex hormones across the menstrual cycle (MC) are associated with various biological changes that may alter resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition estimates. Hormonal contraceptive (HC) use must also be considered given their impact on endogenous sex hormone concentrations and synchronous exogenous profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine if RMR and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates change across the MC and differ compared with HC users. This was accomplished during a 5-week training camp involving naturally cycling athletes (n = 11) and HC users (n = 7 subdermal progestin implant, n = 4 combined monophasic oral contraceptive pill, n = 1 injection) from the National Rugby League Indigenous Women’s Academy. MC phase was retrospectively confirmed via serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations and a positive ovulation test. HC users had serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations assessed at the time point of testing. Results were analyzed using general linear mixed model. There was no effect of MC phase on absolute RMR (p = .877), relative RMR (p = .957), or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates (p > .05). There was no effect of HC use on absolute RMR (p = .069), relative RMR (p = .679), or fat mass estimates (p = .766), but HC users had a greater fat-free mass and lean body mass than naturally cycling athletes (p = .028). Our findings suggest that RMR and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates do not significantly differ due to changes in sex hormones in a group of athletes, and measurements can be compared between MC phases or with HC usage without variations in sex hormones causing additional noise.

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Brazilian Women in Paralympic Sports: Uncovering Historical Milestones in the Summer Paralympic Games

Luiz Gustavo T. Fabricio dos Santos, Isabella dos Santos Alves, Náthali Fernanda Feliciano, Africa Alejandra Ortuño Torres, Luis Felipe Castelli Correia de Campos, and Maria Luiza Tanure Alves

The journey of Brazilian female Paralympians transcends mere statistical increases in women’s participation. Behind the modest athlete growth lies the reality of women who are doubly marginalized by the intersection of gender and disability in an arena tailored for able-bodied men. Our study aimed to catalyze critical discourses surrounding the historical trajectory of Paralympic women’s sports. Through a comprehensive documentary analysis based on the Brazilian Paralympic Committee’s official documents from 1976 to 2021, we sought to shed light on this complex scenario. Numerically, Brazil’s representation comprised 229 women who, predominantly, had physical impairments and engaged in individual sports. In addition to a sporting legacy deeply entrenched in physical rehabilitation with limited opportunities for team-based sports, we observed negative influences stemming from ableist and sexist narratives. A thorough investigation into Paralympic milestones revealed a multitude of social barriers and highlighted the significant impact of societal changes in reshaping athletic opportunities and challenging traditional stereotypes.

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Omega-3 Status Evaluation in Australian Female Rugby League Athletes: Ad Libitum Fish Oil Provision Results in a Varied Omega-3 Index

Ryan Anthony, Nicola Jaffrey, Caitlin Byron, Gregory E. Peoples, and Michael J. Macartney

Optimal omega-3 status, influenced by increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is vital for physiological health. This study investigated the impact of ad libitum fish oil supplementation on the omega-3 status of female athletes in a professional rugby league team during a competitive season. Twenty-four (n = 24) athletes participated, and their omega-3 status was assessed using the Omega-3 Index (O3I) and arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA ratio through finger-prick blood samples taken at the start and end of the season. They were given access to a fish oil supplement (PILLAR Performance, Australia) with a recommended daily dose of four capsules per day (2,160 mg EPA and 1,440 mg docosahexaenoic acid). At the beginning of the season, the group mean O3I was 4.77% (95% confidence interval [CI: 4.50, 5.04]) and the AA to EPA ratio was 14.89 (95% CI [13.22, 16.55]). None of the athletes had an O3I exceeding 8%. By the season’s end, the O3I was a significantly increased to 7.28% (95% CI [6.64, 7.93], p < .0001) and AA to EPA ratio significantly decreased to a mean of 6.67 (95% CI [5.02, 8.31], p < .0001), driven primarily by the significant increase in EPA of +1.14% (95% CI [0.77, 1.51], p < .0001). However, these changes were varied between the athletes and most likely due to compliance. This study has demonstrated that using the objective O3I feedback scale is possible with elite female rugby athletes, but individual strategies will be required to achieve daily intake targets of EPA + DHA.

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“You Are Not Wrong About Getting Strong:” An Insight Into the Impact of Age Group and Level of Competition on Strength in Spanish Football Players

Marcos A. Soriano, Víctor Paredes, Paul Comfort, Ester Jiménez-Ormeño, Francisco Areces-Corcuera, Verónica Giráldez-Costas, César Gallo-Salazar, Diego A. Alonso-Aubín, María Menchén-Rubio, and John J. McMahon

Objective: This study aimed to compare the maximum and rapid force production of Spanish football players and explore the differences between age group and level of competition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate the peak force (PF), relative PF, and rate of force development over 250 ms (RFD0−250) during the isometric midthigh pull between groups of football players based on age group (senior vs junior) and level of competition (national vs regional). Using a portable isometric rig, 111 football players performed 2 isometric midthigh-pull trials on a force plate. Two-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc correction was applied, and statistical significance was set at P ≤ .05. The PF, relative PF, and RFD0−250 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentiles were also calculated and descriptively reported, separated by age group and level of competition. Results: The analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of the level of competition for the PF (P < .001), relative PF (P = .003), and RFD0−250 (P < .001). There was a significant main effect of age group for the PF (P < .001). There was a significant interaction effect of the age group × level of competition for relative PF (P = .014). National players were stronger than regional players on the PF and RFD0−250 (P < .001). Senior players were stronger than junior players for the PF (P < .001). Conclusions: Maximum and rapid force production are crucial for Spanish football players as they progress in both level of competition and age group. Practitioners should encourage young football players to prioritize strength development to improve their athletic performance.