Paul R. Hibbing, Seth A. Creasy, and Jordan A. Carlson
Physical behaviors (e.g., sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity) often occur in sustained bouts that are punctuated with brief interruptions. To detect and classify these interrupted bouts, researchers commonly use wearable devices and specialized algorithms. Most algorithms examine the data in chronological order, initiating and terminating bouts whenever specific criteria are met. Consequently, the bouts may encapsulate or overlap with later periods that also meet the activation and termination criteria (i.e., alternative bout solutions). In some cases, it is desirable to compare these alternative bout solutions before making a final classification. Thus, comparison-focused algorithms are needed, which can be used in isolation or in concert with their chronology-focused counterparts. In this technical note, we present a comparison-focused algorithm called CRIB (Clustered Recognition of Interrupted Bouts). It uses agglomerative hierarchical clustering to facilitate the comparison of different bout solutions, with the final classification being made in favor of the smallest number of bouts that comply with user-specified criteria (i.e., limits on the number, individual duration, and cumulative duration of interruptions). For demonstration, we use CRIB to assess bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and we include a comparison against results from two established chronology-focused algorithms. Our discussion explores strengths and limitations of CRIB, as well as potential considerations and applications for using it in future studies. An online vignette (https://github.com/paulhibbing/PBpatterns/blob/main/vignettes/CRIB.pdf) is available to assist users with implementing CRIB in R.
John Bellettiere, Supun Nakandala, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler, Paul R. Hibbing, Genevieve N. Healy, David W. Dunstan, Neville Owen, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Dori E. Rosenberg, Jingjing Zou, Jordan A. Carlson, Chongzhi Di, Lindsay W. Dillon, Marta M. Jankowska, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Nicola D. Ridgers, Rong Zablocki, Arun Kumar, and Loki Natarajan
Background: Hip-worn accelerometers are commonly used, but data processed using the 100 counts per minute cut point do not accurately measure sitting patterns. We developed and validated a model to accurately classify sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometer data from a wide age range of older adults. Methods: Deep learning models were trained with 30-Hz triaxial hip-worn accelerometer data as inputs and activPAL sitting/nonsitting events as ground truth. Data from 981 adults aged 35–99 years from cohorts in two continents were used to train the model, which we call CHAP-Adult (Convolutional Neural Network Hip Accelerometer Posture-Adult). Validation was conducted among 419 randomly selected adults not included in model training. Results: Mean errors (activPAL − CHAP-Adult) and 95% limits of agreement were: sedentary time −10.5 (−63.0, 42.0) min/day, breaks in sedentary time 1.9 (−9.2, 12.9) breaks/day, mean bout duration −0.6 (−4.0, 2.7) min, usual bout duration −1.4 (−8.3, 5.4) min, alpha .00 (−.04, .04), and time in ≥30-min bouts −15.1 (−84.3, 54.1) min/day. Respective mean (and absolute) percent errors were: −2.0% (4.0%), −4.7% (12.2%), 4.1% (11.6%), −4.4% (9.6%), 0.0% (1.4%), and 5.4% (9.6%). Pearson’s correlations were: .96, .92, .86, .92, .78, and .96. Error was generally consistent across age, gender, and body mass index groups with the largest deviations observed for those with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Conclusions: Overall, these strong validation results indicate CHAP-Adult represents a significant advancement in the ambulatory measurement of sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometers. Pending external validation, it could be widely applied to data from around the world to extend understanding of the epidemiology and health consequences of sitting.
Shelby N. Anderson
Sport psychology scholars have long called for the field to take intersectional approaches to research and applied practice. Missing from this call is the study of intersectionality in the classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this practice paper is to provide a resource for sport psychology practitioners to take an intersectional approach in their teaching. First, the author provides a brief overview of intersectional theory and approaches to using anti-oppressive practices in the classroom. The author then reflects on their experience utilizing an intersectional lens as a neophyte instructor. Finally, the author discusses lessons learned from this teaching experience. This practice paper serves as a resource for sport psychology scholars and practitioners to integrate the study of intersectionality in their roles. While this paper is written for the higher education classroom, all readers will gain knowledge on intersectional theory and how it can be integrated in their scholarship or applied practice.
Ruth F. Hunter and Ione Avila-Palencia
Anne R. Lindsay, Courtney Coughenour, Layne Case, Jacob Bevell, Victoria Fryer, and Ali Brian
The purpose of this study was to examine state-level early learning standards specific to physical development, including fundamental motor skills and gross motor development for preschool-aged children in the United States. All standards related to motor development and specific to children ages 3–5 years were extracted from publicly available online documents from all 50 states. Upon initial review, 961 standards were extracted from all documents. Through aggregation of similar skills and elimination of duplicates across states, 48 unique skills were identified. Frequencies and proportions of states that included each skill in their standards were calculated. Descriptive results indicate that none of the 48 skills were included as a standard across all 50 states. Only three skills, running, jumping, and throwing a ball overhand were a standard in over 75% of states. Most of the skills were standards in less than 50% of states. Trends from these data show that a wide range of motor skills are included within preschool physical development standards within the United States, with large variability among states. Considering this variability, and currently low levels of motor competence among young children, additional evaluation, and future creation of best practice preschool physical development standards are warranted.
Adrian E. Bauman and Justin A. Richards
Background: Sport New Zealand conducts continuous representative “Active NZ” surveys. Between 2019 and 2020 (n = 13,887), these surveys asked International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)—long-form questions, the single-item days (SI-days) per week question, and 1 question on hours per week (single-item hours [SI-hours] per week). This study examines relationships between the established SI-days question and meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (150 min moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week from SI-hours question and IPAQ). Methods: Analyses were descriptive, and the best fit between SI-days and the PA thresholds was estimated using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves and Youden index. Results: Using SI-hours, 60.6% achieved 150+ minutes; 85.2% reported the IPAQ-total minimum threshold, and 40.8% met the IPAQ-leisure time PA-only threshold. Receiver operator characteristic analyses showed area under the curve values with IPAQ between 0.63 and 0.76, but the SI-days showed a very good area under the curve of 0.82 (0.81–0.83) with the SI-hours 150-minute threshold. Youden index suggested the best fit was at 3+ days per week for maximizing Sensitivity and Specificity to meet IPAQ or SI-hours-defined PA guidelines. Discussion: The SI-days per week question reflects achieving PA guidelines, and the best fit was with the SI-hours per week question. This provides surveillance-relevant concurrent validity for the SI-days measure, but the cut point for broadly meeting guidelines appears to be at least 3 days per week, not 5 days per week as previously thought.
Florian Manneville, Serge Briançon, Karine Legrand, Johanne Langlois, Edith Lecomte, Abdou Y. Omorou, and Francis Guillemin
Background: This study aimed to quantify the 2-year mediating effects of physical activity (PA) and eating behavior (EB) on socioeconomic and sex inequalities in quality of life (QoL) among French adolescents. Methods: Adolescents from a 2-year school-based trial were included. PA and EB were assessed at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and an eating habits questionnaire, respectively. QoL was measured at 2 years using the Duke Health Profile questionnaire. The mediating effect of adherence to PA and EB guidelines in the associations between socioeconomic status or sex and QoL was analyzed with a counterfactual method. Results: Among the 3562 included adolescents (mean age, 15.2 [0.6] y), being a boy and having a high socioeconomic status was associated with high QoL. Differences in QoL by socioeconomic status were mediated by adherence to guidelines for PA (up to 10.2%) and EB (up to 8.8%), and differences in QoL by sex were predominantly mediated by adherence to guidelines for PA (up to 163.8%). Conclusions: Policies, programs, and interventions designed to reduce socioeconomic and sex inequalities in QoL among adolescents could use PA and EB as leverage.