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Can We Just Play? Internal Validity of Assessing Physiological State With a Semistandardized Kicking Drill in Professional Australian Football

Adriano Arguedas-Soley, Tzlil Shushan, Andrew Murphy, Nicholas Poulos, Ric Lovell, and Dean Norris

Purpose: To examine associations between exercise heart rate (HRex) during a continuous-fixed submaximal fitness test (CF-SMFT) and an intermittent-variable protocol (semistandardized kicking drill [SSD]) in Australian Football athletes, controlling for external intensities, within-session scheduling, and environmental conditions. Methods: Forty-four professional male Australian Football athletes (22.8 [8.0] y) were monitored over 10 sessions involving a 3-minute CF-SMFT (12 km·h−1) as the first activity and a SSD administered 35.7 (8.0) minutes after the CF-SMFT. Initial heart rate and HRex were collected, with external intensities measured as average velocity (in meters per minute) and average acceleration–deceleration (in meters per second squared). Environmental conditions were sampled. A penalized hierarchical linear mixed model was tuned for a Bayesian information criterion minima using a 10-fold cross-validation, with out-of-sample prediction accuracy assessed via root-mean-squared error. Results: SSD average acceleration–deceleration, initial heart rate, temperature, and ground hardness were significant moderators in the tuned model. When model covariates were held constant, a 1%-point change in SSD HRex associated with a 0.4%-point change in CF-SMFT HRex (95% CI, 0.3–0.5). The tuned model predicted CF-SMFT HRex with an average root-mean-squared error of 2.64 (0.57) over the 10-fold cross-validation, with 74% and 86% of out-of-sample predictions falling within 2.7%-points and 3.7%-points, respectively, from observed values, representing the lower and upper limits for detecting meaningful changes in HRex according to the documented typical error. Conclusions: Our findings support the use of an SSD to monitor physiological state in Australian Football athletes, despite varied scheduling within session. Model predictions of CF-SMFT HRex from SSD HRex closely aligned with observed values, considering measurement imprecision.

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The Anabolic Response to Protein Ingestion During Recovery From Exercise Has No Upper Limit in Magnitude and Duration In Vivo in Humans: A Commentary

Oliver C. Witard and Samuel Mettler

A comprehensive recent study by Trommelen et al. demonstrated that muscle tissue exhibits a greater capacity to incorporate exogenous exogenous protein-derived amino acids into bound muscle protein than was previously appreciated, at least when measured in “anabolically sensitive,” recreationally active (but not resistance-trained), young men following resistance exercise. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the duration of the postprandial period is modulated by the dose of ingested protein contained within a meal, that is, the postexercise muscle protein synthesis response to protein ingestion was more prolonged in 100PRO than 25PRO. Both observations represent important scientific advances in the field of protein metabolism. However, we respectfully caution that the practical implications of these findings may have been misinterpreted, at least in terms of dismissing the concept of protein meal distribution as an important factor in optimizing muscle tissue anabolism and/or metabolic health. Moreover, based on emerging evidence, this idea that the anabolic response to protein ingestion has no upper limit does not appear to translate to resistance-trained young women.

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Protein Intake Distribution: Beneficial, Detrimental, or Inconsequential for Muscle Anabolism? Response to Witard & Mettler

Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M. Holwerda, and Luc J.C. van Loon

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Do Motor–Cognitive and Motor–Motor Dual-Task Training Differently Affect Dual-Task Interference in Individuals With Intellectual Disability?

Rihab Borji, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sirine Falhi, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

This study explored the effect of different dual-task (DT) training programs on DT interference in adults with intellectual disability. Center-of-pressure (CoP) mean velocity in single-task (ST) and cognitive-DT conditions and the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) during ST, cognitive-DT, and motor-DT conditions were assessed before and after intervention in a cognitive–motor training group, a motor–motor training group, and a control group. Before training, CoP mean velocity and TUGT time increased (p < .001) in DT compared with the ST condition. After training, the CoP mean velocity values remained unchanged (p = .07) in DT compared with the ST condition among the cognitive–motor training group. Furthermore, compared with the ST condition, no increase (p = 1) was reported in the TUGT time during the cognitive-DT condition for the cognitive–motor training group and during the motor-DT for the motor–motor training group (p = .12). The effect of DT training on DT interference depends on the training modality.

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Evaluating the Validity of Tests to Predict Sprint and Change of Direction Speed in Para-Athletes With Brain Impairments

Raul Reina, Emma M. Beckman, Mark J. Connick, Jemima G. Spathis, and Sean M. Tweedy

Maximum running speed is a performance determinant in para-athletics and cerebral palsy football. Sixty international para-athletes with brain impairments completed five activity-limitation tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, 10-m speed skip, and running in place) and two criterion tests (40-m sprint and modified agility test). The same three tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, and 10-m speed skip) that correlated with running performance in nondisabled runners (.67 < r < −.82; p < .05; 75% of variance) also correlated in para-athletes with brain impairments (.41 < r <  −.62; p < .01; 55% of variance). Standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, and running in place also correlated with change-of-direction speed (.43 < r <  −.63; p < .01; 58% of variance). Results indicate that methods of classification for para-athletics with nondisabled runners are also valid with para-athletes with brain impairments, and new sport-specific relationships were found for assessing the performance of rapid and short sprints toward different directions, specific of a team para-sport like cerebral palsy football.

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Introducing IJSPP’s First Reviewer Incentive: A Submission-Fee Waiver

Dionne A. Noordhof and Øyvind Sandbakk

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Volume 41 (2024): Issue 3 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 7 (Jul 2024)

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“I Found Comfort in Exercising”: Exploring Experiences With Exercise for Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Anusha V. Ramji, Eleanor J. Dommett, and Oliver R. Runswick

Little is known about how adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience exercise, resulting in a lack of recommendations for supporting this population. We aimed to explore how adults with ADHD experience exercise as a management tool before and after diagnosis and how and why individuals experience issues related to exercise dependence. Fifteen active adults with a diagnosis of ADHD participated in semistructured interviews. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) exercise as a necessity for ADHD, reflecting the need to exercise before a formal ADHD diagnosis, and use of exercise as a management tool postdiagnosis; (b) goals and achievements to live by, reflecting how exercise patterns revolved around a need to make progress toward targets; and (c) activity or exercise: a roller coaster journey, covering the ups and downs of exercise journeys. This article highlights the importance of exercise for adults to manage ADHD and how this can be encouraged and supported.