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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Katherine L. McKee, Melitta A. McNarry, Kelly A. Mackintosh, and David Berrigan

Purpose: To assess the association between the amount of recess provision and children’s accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) levels. Methods: Parents/guardians of 6- to 11-year-olds (n = 451) in the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey reported recess provision, categorized as low (10–15 min; 31.9%), medium (16–30 min; 48.0%), or high (>30 min; 20.1%). Children wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for 7 days to estimate time spent sedentary, in light PA, and in moderate to vigorous PA using 2 different cut points for either activity counts or raw acceleration. Outcomes were compared between levels of recess provision while adjusting for covariates and the survey’s multistage, probability sampling design. Results: Children with high recess provision spent less time sedentary, irrespective of type of day (week vs weekend) and engaged in more light or moderate to vigorous PA on weekdays than those with low recess provision. The magnitude and statistical significance of effects differed based on the cut points used to classify PA (eg, 4.7 vs 11.9 additional min·d−1 of moderate to vigorous PA). Conclusions: Providing children with >30 minutes of daily recess, which exceeds current recommendations of ≥20 minutes, is associated with more favorable PA levels and not just on school days. Identifying the optimal method for analyzing wrist-worn accelerometer data could clarify the magnitude of this effect.

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Christine Crumbley, Aliye B. Cepni, Ashley Taylor, Debbe Thompson, Nancy E. Moran, Norma Olvera, Daniel P. O’Connor, Craig A. Johnston, and Tracey A. Ledoux

Purpose: Studying physical activity in toddlers using accelerometers is challenging due to noncompliance with wear time (WT) and activity log (AL) instructions. The aims of this study are to examine relationships between WT and AL completion and (1) demographic and socioeconomic variables, (2) parenting style, and (3) whether sedentary time differs by AL completion. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed using baseline data from a community wellness program randomized controlled trial for parents with toddlers (12–35 mo). Parents had toddlers wear ActiGraph wGT3x accelerometers and completed ALs. Valid days included ≥600-minute WT. Analysis of variance and chi-square analyses were used. Results: The sample (n = 50) comprised racial and ethnically diverse toddlers (mean age = 27 mo, 58% male) and parents (mean age = 31.7 y, 84% female). Twenty-eight families (56%) returned valid accelerometer data with ALs. Participants in relationships were more likely to complete ALs (P < .05). Toddler sedentary time did not differ between those with ALs and those without. Conclusions: We found varied compliance with WT instructions and AL completion. Returned AL quality was poor, presenting challenges in correctly characterizing low-activity counts to improve internal validity of WT and physical activity measures. Support from marital partners may be important for adherence to study protocols.

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Thomas Losnegard, Magne Lund-Hansen, Erland Vedeler Stubbe, Even Dahlen Granrud, Harri Luchsinger, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Jan Kocbach

Purpose: In sprint biathlon, a J-shaped pacing pattern is commonly used. We investigated whether biathletes with a fast-start pacing pattern increase time-trial skiing and shooting performance by pacing more evenly. Methods: Thirty-eight highly trained biathletes (∼21 y, 27 men) performed an individual 7.5 (3 × 2.5 km for women) or 10-km (3 × 3.3 km for men) time trial on roller skis with a self-selected pacing strategy (day 1). Prone (after lap 1) and standing shooting (after lap 2) stages were performed using paper targets. Based on their pacing strategy in the first time trial (ratio between the initial ∼800-m segment pace on lap 1 and average ∼800-m segment pace on laps 1–3), participants were divided into an intervention group with the fastest starting pace (INT, n = 20) or a control group with a more conservative starting pace (CON, n = 18). On day 2, INT was instructed to reduce their starting pace, while CON was instructed to maintain their day 1 strategy. Results: INT increased their overall time-trial performance more than CON from day 1 to day 2  (mean ± 95% CI; 1.5% ± 0.7% vs 0.0% ± 0.9%, P = .02). From day 1 to day 2, INT reduced their starting pace (5.0% ± 1.5%, P < .01), with reduced ratings of perceived exertion during lap 1 (P < .05). For CON, no change was found for starting pace (−0.8% ± 1.2%) or ratings of perceived exertion between days. No differences were found for shooting performance for either group. Conclusion: Highly trained biathletes with a pronounced fast-start pattern improve skiing performance without any change in shooting performance by pacing more evenly.

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Akilah R. Carter-Francique

The purpose of this article is to encourage administrators, faculty, and staff to foster a sense of belonging for students of color in kinesiology and affiliated academic units at institutions of higher education. Kinesiology is vast and has a range of corresponding workforce careers; however, despite equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, people of color still lag behind in representation. Acknowledging the current social and legislative climate that seeks to dismantle equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts, the American Kinesiology Association as a leadership-driven membership has the opportunity to further its stance and governance through amplifying the sense of belonging as a social justice practice. Fostering a holistic sense of belonging for students of color beyond the conventional classroom can promote successful student outcomes with increased academic engagement and use of support services, increased personal self-concept and mental health and wellness, and an overall satisfaction with the college experience.

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David Kahan

Background: Physical inactivity prevalence estimates for youth and adults have been published on a global scale and for various geographical and geopolitical permutations. Only one such study has presented estimates for adults in Muslim countries, and it is nearly 10 years old. I conducted an update of this study by incorporating newer data, refining methods, and including youth estimates. Methods: I identified 47 Muslim countries with physical inactivity data for youth, adults, or both. Data were extracted by country primarily from global estimates reported by Guthold et al in 2018 and 2020 and from World Health Organization surveillance data repositories. Weighted prevalence calculations for total prevalence and by sex, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab), and country income group accounted for country population, study sample size, and a country’s proportion of Muslims. Z tests and chi-square tests, and follow-up odds ratios and percentage deviations, respectively, were used to determine differences by sex, ethnicity, and country income group. Results: Overall physical inactivity prevalence was 84.2% (youth) and 29.6% (adults). Gaps favoring males over females were observed for youth (5.6% lower prevalence) and adults (9.6% lower prevalence). Gaps favoring non-Arabs over Arabs were observed for youth (3.9% lower) and adults (3.8% lower). No pattern emerged for country income group for youth; however, prevalence for adults trended upward across income groups from low (22.7%) to high (62.0%). Conclusions: Gaps by sex and ethnicity have narrowed since the original report and prevalence values are somewhat higher than current global estimates.