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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.

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Markus N.C. Williams, Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady, Samuel Gardner, Vincent J. Dalbo, and Aaron T. Scanlan

Purpose: To compare weekly training, game, and overall (training and games) demands across phases of the regular season in basketball. Methods: Seven semiprofessional, male basketball players were monitored during all on-court team-based training sessions and games during the regular season. External monitoring variables included PlayerLoad and inertial movement analysis events per minute. Internal monitoring variables included a modified summated heart rate zones model calculated per minute and rating of perceived exertion. Linear mixed models were used to compare training, game, and overall demands between 5-week phases (early, middle, and late) of the regular season with significance set at P ≤ .05. Effect sizes were calculated between phases and interpreted as: trivial, <0.20; small, 0.20 to 0.59; moderate, 0.60 to 1.19; large, 1.20 to 1.99; very large, ≥2.00. Results: Greater (P > .05) overall inertial movement analysis events (moderate–very large) and rating of perceived exertion (moderate) were evident in the late phase compared with earlier phases. During training, more accelerations were evident in the middle (P = .01, moderate) and late (P = .05, moderate) phases compared with the early phase, while higher rating of perceived exertion (P = .04, moderate) was evident in the late phase compared with earlier phases. During games, nonsignificant, trivial–small differences in demands were apparent between phases. Conclusions: Training and game demands should be interpreted in isolation and combined given overall player demands increased as the season progressed, predominantly due to modifications in training demands given the stability of game demands. Periodization strategies administered by coaching staff may have enabled players to train at greater intensities late in the season without compromising game intensity.

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Gabriel Barreto, Gabriel P. Esteves, Felipe Miguel Marticorena, and Bryan Saunders

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Oliver C. Witard, Laurent Bannock, and Kevin D. Tipton

The acute response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to resistance exercise and nutrition is often used to inform recommendations for exercise programming and dietary interventions, particularly protein nutrition, to support and enhance muscle growth with training. Those recommendations are worthwhile only if there is a predictive relationship between the acute response of MPS and subsequent muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training. The metabolic basis for muscle hypertrophy is the dynamic balance between the synthesis and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in muscle. There is ample evidence that the process of MPS is much more responsive to exercise and nutrition interventions than muscle protein breakdown. Thus, it is intuitively satisfying to translate the acute changes in MPS to muscle hypertrophy with training over a longer time frame. Our aim is to examine and critically evaluate the strength and nature of this relationship. Moreover, we examine the methodological and physiological factors related to measurement of MPS and changes in muscle hypertrophy that contribute to uncertainty regarding this relationship. Finally, we attempt to offer recommendations for practical and contextually relevant application of the information available from studies of the acute response of MPS to optimize muscle hypertrophy with training.

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Jeane Franco Pires Medeiros, Michelle Vasconcelos de Oliveira Borges, Aline Alves Soares, Elys Costa de Sousa, José Ronaldo Ribeiro da Costa, Weberthon Alessanderson Costa Silva, Magnus Vinícius Bezerra de Sousa, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas, and André Ducati Luchessi

Although vitamin D is related to cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, there is no evidence in the literature about the genetic influence of the response to vitamin D supplementation and improvements in these parameters. Therefore, we evaluate the effect of longitudinal supplementation of vitamin D on parameters of physical fitness in monozygotic twins. In total, 74 participants were included, with a mean age of 25 years, divided into two groups, one group received supplementation with cholecalciferol for 60 days and the other group did not. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength were measured before and after supplementation through maximal treadmill tests and dynamometry, respectively. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare intragroup results and the Mann–Whitney test to examine intergroup differences. There was an increase in the serum concentration of vitamin D in participants who ingested the supplementation. Cardiorespiratory fitness improved after supplementation through increases in the values of maximum oxygen consumption of 28% (p < .001). Muscle strength in left hand grip increased 18% in participants who received the supplement (p = .007). Sixty days of cholecalciferol supplementation improved cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limb muscle strength.

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Katherine L. Schofield, Holly Thorpe, and Stacy T. Sims

Aim: To highlight energy availability status, resting metabolic rate measures, dietary protein intake, and testosterone concentration in 4 elite male track cycling athletes (mean [SD]: age: 20.8 [1.5] y, body mass: 76.3 [3.6] kg, height: 181.8 [2.9] cm). Method: A cross-sectional observation included measures of energy availability (energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure, divided by fat-free mass), resting metabolic rate from indirect calorimetry, dietary protein intake from food records, blood analysis to assess sex hormone status, and performance markers. Results: Midrange testosterone (16.9–19.8 nmol/L), lowered resting metabolic rate ratio (0.76–0.98), varied luteinizing hormone (4–10 U/L), and suboptimal energy availability (26–41 kcal/kg fat-free mass/d, range) were observed in the male track cyclists. Protein intakes ranged from 2.0 g to 2.8 g protein/kg/d. Conclusion: The current cohort may have within-day energy deficiency, putting them in a catabolic state.

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Toshiyuki Ohya, Kenta Kusanagi, Jun Koizumi, Ryosuke Ando, Keisho Katayama, and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Purpose: Inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) can improve exercise performance. Increased maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) could be beneficial for swimmers to enhance their performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of high-intensity IMST for 6 weeks on MIP and swimming performance in highly trained competitive swimmers. Methods: Thirty male highly trained competitive swimmers were assigned to high-intensity IMST (HI; n = 10), moderate-intensity IMST (MOD; n = 10), and control (n = 10) groups. The 6-week IMST intervention comprised twice daily sessions for 6 d/wk at inspiratory pressure threshold loads equivalent to 75% MIP (HI) and 50% MIP (MOD). Before and after the intervention, MIP and swimming performance were assessed. Swimming performance was evaluated in free and controlled frequency breathing 100-m freestyle swimming time trials in a 25-m pool. For controlled frequency breathing, participants took 1 breath every 6 strokes. Results: The MIP values after 2 and 6 weeks of IMST in the HI and MOD groups were significantly higher than those before IMST (P = .0001). The magnitudes of the MIP increases after 6 weeks of IMST did not differ between the HI (13.4% [8.7%]) and MOD (13.1% [10.1%]) groups (P = .44). The 100-m freestyle swimming times under the controlled frequency condition were significantly shorter after IMST than those before IMST in both the HI (P = .046) and MOD (P = .042) groups. Conclusions: Inspiratory pressure threshold load equivalent to 50% MIP could be sufficient to improve MIP and swimming performance under the controlled frequency breathing condition in highly trained competitive swimmers.