Volume 18 (2024): Issue 1 (Mar 2024)
In Remembrance: The Life and Legacy of Michael T. Turvey (1942–2023)
Michael A. Riley and Dagmar Sternad
Michael T. Turvey passed away on August 12, 2023 at the age of 81. This obituary aims to honor his life and career by highlighting some key events in his personal and professional life, noting some of his many remarkable accomplishments, and emphasizing his exceptional mentorship, friendship, and generosity.
The Role of Imitation, Primitives, and Spatial Referent Coordinates in Motor Control: Implications for Writing and Reading
Shelia Guberman and Mark L. Latash
We review a body of literature related to the drawing and recognition of geometrical two-dimensional linear drawings including letters. Handwritten letters are viewed not as two-dimensional geometrical objects but as one-dimensional trajectories of the tip of the implement. Handwritten letters are viewed as composed of a small set of kinematic primitives. Recognition of objects is mediated by processes of their creation (actual or imagined)—the imitation principle, a particular example of action–perception coupling. The concept of spatial directional field guiding the trajectories is introduced and linked to neuronal population vectors. Further, we link the kinematic description to the theory of control with spatial referent coordinates. This framework allows interpreting a number of experimental observations and clinical cases of agnosia. It also allows formulating predictions for new experimental studies of writing.
The Impact of Athletic Identity, Psychological Flexibility, and Value Consistent Living on the Mental Health and Well-Being of Retired Elite Rugby Players
Jacqueline Mooney, Andrew Bethell, Chris Wagstaff, and Ross White
Retirement from sport is widely accepted as an important period of change for athletes. Existing studies have focused on investigating the mental health and well-being of current players, while limited research has explored the impact of retirement on elite rugby players. The present study aimed to examine how athletic identity, psychological flexibility, and valued living impact subjective well-being and psychological distress in retired elite rugby players. A cross-sectional, between-subject, factorial design was adopted. Seventy-seven retired elite rugby players were recruited to the Tackling Next Steps project and completed an online survey between March 2021 and December 2021. Suboptimal levels of subjective well-being were reported by 64% of retired players, and 43% reported clinical levels of distress. Valued living and psychological flexibility were shown to significantly predict subjective well-being. The results show that promoting psychological flexibility and valued living may have positive effects on subjective well-being in retired rugby players.
Self-Reported Depression in Collegiate Athletes: The Effect of Privacy on Symptom Disclosure
Chloe M. Ouellet-Pizer, Sebastian Harenberg, Justine Vosloo, and Barbara B. Meyer
Prevalence studies on depressive symptoms in collegiate athletes have yielded varied estimations, which may be due, in part, to survey administration privacy. However, the influence of survey administration privacy (i.e., anonymous and confidential) on depressive symptom disclosure remains unknown in sport. The purposes of the current study, therefore, were twofold: (a) compare depressive symptoms reported under high- and low-privacy conditions and (b) examine factors associated with underreporting (i.e., social desirability). College athletes (N = 123) were randomly assigned to high- and low-privacy conditions. Results indicated no significant difference, F(1, 120) = 0.59, p = .446, between the prevalence of depressive symptoms reported across conditions when controlling for sex, and no significant correlation between depressive symptoms and social desirability (r = −.01, p = .886). Taken together, results indicated that survey administration privacy did not impact depressive symptom disclosure in the current sample.
Investigating Patterns of Donor and Recipient Sports of Talent Transfer Paralympians
Adeline Green, Rory Mulcahy, David Fleischman, Luke MacDonald, and Bridie Kean
Talent transfer has enabled elite athletes to be successful in another sport, with great potential in para-sport. Previous research suggests that similarities between donor and recipient sports may facilitate talent transfer; however, this remains unclear in para-sport. This study investigated patterns between donor and recipient sports’ characteristics, identifying the impact on talent transfer in para-sport. An Australian case study utilizing secondary data of 38 Australian Paralympians who competed at the Paralympic Games from 2000 through 2020 was analyzed. Results demonstrated that similarities between sports were not significantly associated with successful talent transfers between Paralympic sports. Understanding patterns associated with successful Paralympic talent transfers offers a foundation of knowledge for designing and developing future talent-transfer pathways and research. Based on this study, it is recommended that sport administrators and practitioners explore greater opportunity for talent transfer in para-sport, rather than limiting talent-transfer opportunities based on athletes’ donor sports.
Variability Analysis in Judo Para Athletes With Visual Impairments: Match-Outcome Performance in the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games With Evidence From the New Classification System
Rafael Lima Kons, Danilo França Conceição dos Santos, Raiane Carvalho, Adriano Ferreira da Silva, João Paulo Lopes-Silva, Emerson Franchini, and Daniele Detanico
Match-related performance analysis in judo Para athletes with visual impairments is important to coaches and staff to identify technical–tactical profiles of their athletes and opponents but also to identify whether there are similar characteristics in each visual class. Thus, this study explores the match-related performance in judo Para athletes and verifies the relationship between performance using the old and new classification systems. The match-derived variables were analyzed using different statistical methods considering a total of 182 matches from the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. The results indicated that performance was affected by sex and degree of impairment. The new classification system seems suitable for grouping Para judo athletes, as it differentiates performance between the two proposed classes (J1 and J2), since athletes from each group compete separately. Furthermore, different variability index measures were correlated with competitive performance, demonstrating a specific performance profile for each sport class in judo.
Disability and Motor Behavior: A Handbook of Research
Martin E. Block
Volume 40 (2024): Issue 1 (Feb 2024)
Consistent Individual Tendencies in Motor Speed–Accuracy Trade-Off
Matheus M. Pacheco, Charley W. Lafe, Che-Hsiu Chen, and Tsung-Yu Hsieh
The literature on speed–accuracy trade-off (SAT) in motor control has evidenced individuality in how individuals trade moments (e.g., mean and variance) of spatial and temporal errors. These individual tendencies could grasp tendencies of the system given previous experiences and constraints of the organism, a signature of the system control. Nonetheless, such tendency must be robust to small perturbations. Thirty participants performed nine conditions with different time and spatial criteria over 2 days (scanning). In between these scanning conditions, individuals performed a practice condition that required modifications of the individuals’ preferred spatial and temporal tendency in the SAT. Our results demonstrated that there were no systematic effects of practice in SAT preferences. However, individual analyses demonstrated significant changes for 25 out of 30 individuals. The latter either attests against a consistent preference or to a more complex characterization of individual SAT tendencies.