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Volume 46 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Visual Performance and Sports: A Scoping Review

Liam Lochhead, Jiren Feng, Daniel M. Laby, and Lawrence G. Appelbaum

Vision is central to success in nearly all sports, and there is an emerging body of research investigating the links between visual abilities and athletic performance. This preregistered scoping review seeks to clarify the topics of study, methodologies used, populations under investigation, researchers, and disciplines driving this field. Systematic searches of English-language articles were conducted in PubMed and Web of Science, with additional literature identified through bibliographic searches. Six hundred sixty-seven articles published between 1976 and 2023 were identified with 547 empirical studies, 58 review articles, 20 commentaries, and 4 meta-analyses, among others. Among the empirical papers, 411 reported on visual assessments and 98 on vision training interventions. The most represented sports included baseball, soccer, basketball, and cricket, with over 150 articles reporting on professional, elite, or Olympic athletes. This scoping review describes the breadth of this emerging field, identifies its strengths and weaknesses, and provides recommendations for future improvement.

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Development and Validation of the Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery Ability Questionnaire

Matthew W. Scott, Maaike Esselaar, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Ben Marshall, Aimee S. Deacon, Paul S. Holmes, and David J. Wright

Combined use of action observation and motor imagery (AOMI) is an increasingly popular motor-simulation intervention, which involves observing movements on video while simultaneously imagining the feeling of movement execution. Measuring and reporting participant imagery-ability characteristics are essential in motor-simulation research, but no measure of AOMI ability currently exists. Accordingly, the AOMI Ability Questionnaire (AOMI-AQ) was developed to address this gap in the literature. In Study 1, two hundred eleven participants completed the AOMI-AQ and the kinesthetic imagery subscales of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 and Vividness of Motor Imagery Questionnaire-2. Following exploratory factor analysis, an 8-item AOMI-AQ was found to correlate positively with existing motor-imagery measures. In Study 2, one hundred seventy-four participants completed the AOMI-AQ for a second time after a period of 7–10 days. Results indicate a good test–retest reliability for the AOMI-AQ. The new AOMI-AQ measure provides a valid and reliable tool for researchers and practitioners wishing to assess AOMI ability.

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Digest

Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Erratum. Predicting Accelerometer-Assessed Estimates of Adolescent’s Multidimensional Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

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Predicting Accelerometer-Assessed Estimates of Adolescents’ Multidimensional Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

Lydia G. Emm-Collison, Martyn Standage, Fiona B. Gillison, and Thomas Curran

Based on the tenets in self-determination theory, a dual-process model of motivational processes was tested to predict accelerometer-assessed estimates of adolescents’ light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time. Here, we hypothesized that (a) perceptions of psychological need support for exercise would be positively associated with LPA and MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time via exercise-related psychological need satisfaction and autonomous exercise motivation and (b) perceptions of psychological need thwarting for exercise would be negatively associated with LPA and MVPA and positively associated with sedentary time via exercise-related psychological need frustration and controlled exercise motivation. Adolescents (N = 338; 234 female) age 11–15 years (M = 12.75, SD = .90) wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 8 days and completed questionnaires pertaining to the self-determination-theory variables. Results showed psychological need support to indirectly and positively predict LPA and MVPA via psychological need satisfaction and autonomous exercise motivation. Although directly predictive of need frustration and indirectly predictive of controlled motivation and amotivation, the hypothesized effects from psychological need thwarting to the behavioral outcomes were nonsignificant. The current findings highlight the important role that need-supportive environments play in facilitating autonomous exercise motivation and behavior by being conducive to exercise-related psychological need satisfaction.

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The Sport Experience Measure for Children and Youth (SEM:CY): A Rasch Validation Study

Philip Jefferies, Matthew Y.W. Kwan, Denver M.Y. Brown, Mark W. Bruner, Katherine A. Tamminen, and John Cairney

This study employed Rasch analyses to validate a novel measure of sport experience: the Sport Experience Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY). Analyses were applied to self-reported data of n = 503 young people (age 9–18 years, M = 12.91, 50% female) in Canada who were engaging in sport during the previous 12 months. The revised measure, consisting of 24 items on a 3-point response scale, demonstrated good fit statistics (e.g., item fit residual: M = −0.50, SD = 0.94 and person fit residual: M = −0.62, SD = 2.33), an ability to reliably discriminate between levels of sport experience, and an absence of differential item functioning for various groups (males and females, older and younger individuals, solo and team sports, and those playing at various competitive levels, including recreation). The SEM:CY is a succinct tool that can serve as a valuable means to gauge the quality of an individual’s sport experience, which can facilitate positive youth development and sustain participation across the life span.

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Volume 46 (2024): Issue S1 (May 2024)

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North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity

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Inhibition of Ironic Errors and Facilitation of Overcompensation Errors Under Pressure: An Investigation Including Perceived Weakness

Hiroki Nakamoto, Shoya Hashimoto, Mio Kamei, Munenori Murata, Sachi Ikudome, Kenta Karakida, and Yoshifumi Tanaka

The conflicting predictions of ironic process theory and the implicit overcompensation hypothesis have been presented as a framework to explain the characteristics of errors that occur when a certain behavior is prohibited. The former predicts that instructions prohibiting a particular behavior will increase the likelihood of an outcome that should be avoided (ironic error), whereas the latter predicts that the likelihood of an outcome opposite of that to be avoided (overcompensation error) will increase. We examined how these errors, which negatively affect performance, are influenced by pressure and perceived weakness. Participants performed a tennis-stroke task, aiming to hit a ball toward a target zone while avoiding a discouraged zone. The results indicate that pressure decreases the ironic errors but increases the overcompensation errors that occur when a particular behavior is discouraged, while an increase in perceived weakness induces random errors.