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Volume 32 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Mandating Women Board Members in Sport Organizations: Change via Coercive Institutional Pressure

Kathleen B. Wilson, Adam Karg, Emma Sherry, Kasey Symons, and Tim Breitbarth

Boosting board representation of women redresses structural unfairness and improves corporate governance and performance. The Change Our Game initiative, running over 3 years statewide in Victoria, Australia, mandated 40% representation of women on state sport boards. At the start, only 44% of state sport boards had 40% women representation; by the mandate deadline, this had increased to 93%. Using an institutional theory lens, the authors qualitatively analyzed four stakeholder groups: mandators, policy champions, operationalists, and mandate targets. Stakeholder sentiments were analyzed pre- and postmandate deadline over 3 years. Sentiments ranged from positive to equivocation to denigration. The mandate’s coercive pressure, supported by institutional legitimacy and work to accelerate changes, led to institutional change and achieved a significant increase in women board members. Change was grounded in strong ethical and cognitive support from mandate champions. Microsocial expressions of denigration and change resistance did not prevent successful change.

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What Determines the Number of Social Media Followers of Professional Cyclists: A Statistical Analysis

Jeroen Belien, Kevin De Clercq, and Michel Meulders

This paper examines which factors influence the change in the number of followers of professional cyclists on social media using a fixed-effects model on 33 days of panel data regarding the performance, activity, and content of Twitter messages of 795 cyclists. The analysis shows that a better race performance leads to more new followers. Posting social tweets has no effect, but posting social retweets does increase the number of new followers for riders with a low or medium number of followers. For parasocial tweets, the reverse is true: Parasocial retweets have no effect, while parasocial noninteractive tweets have a positive significant effect for riders with a low or high number of followers. Finally, for riders with a high number of followers, posting a general question to followers has a positive impact on the number of new followers. Cyclists and teams can use the results of this study to identify over- and underperformers in terms of social media success and to attract more followers with all the associated benefits.

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Effect of Protein Supplementation Combined With Resistance Training in Gait Speed in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Juan Li, Yahai Wang, Fang Liu, and Yu Miao

Background: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of protein supplementation and resistance training (RT), compared with RT alone or combined with a placebo, in improving gait speed. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus databases, and 18 randomized controlled trials with 1,147 older participants were included for meta-analysis. Data were pooled as the effect sizes (Hedges’ g) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of the gait speed (in meters per second). The random-effect meta-analysis, subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: The combination of protein supplementation and RT significantly improved gait speed (Hedges’ g: 0.52 m/s, 95% confidence interval [0.17, 0.86], p = .005; I 2  = 86.5%) compared with the RT alone. The subgroup analyses revealed that the significant improvement in gait speed postprotein intervention plus RT was observed only in participants who consumed protein after RT (Hedges’ g: 0.90 m/s, 95% confidence interval [0.46, 1.33], p = .001; I 2  = 79.6%). The pooled result did not significantly change after excluding any single study at one time or excluding smaller studies with large effect sizes. Conclusions: Protein supplementation combined with RT could significantly improve the gait speed of older adults compared with RT alone. This positive effect is more pronounced in people who consume protein after RT.

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“Now I Am Walking Toward Health”: A Qualitative Study About the Outcomes of Physical Activity Participation That Matter to Older Adults

Peter J. Young, Christine Wallsworth, Hitika Gosal, and Dawn C. Mackey

Background/Objectives: Randomized controlled trials that deliver physical activity interventions have demonstrated benefits for older adults across numerous health outcomes. However, too little attention has been directed to ensuring that such trials are measuring patient-relevant outcomes. To support outcome selection for future trials, the objective of this study was to understand what outcomes related to their physical activity participation older adults find important. Methods: We conducted 12 semistructured interviews with adults aged 65 years and older and analyzed interview transcripts with a reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Older adults desired diverse outcomes from their physical activity participation, ranging from generic (e.g., quality of life) to specific (e.g., leg strength). Relevant outcomes were classified under five themes: physical, clinical, social, psychological, and overarching, each with respective subthemes. Conclusions: The outcomes that older adults found important were plentiful and rooted in a desire to improve their quality of life. Some of the outcome themes have been reported frequently in past trials (e.g., physical), but others have not (e.g., social). Future researchers should be aware of, and responsive to, the priorities of older adults when designing trials and defining outcomes. Significance/Implications: This study will help to improve outcome selection for future trials of physical activity with older adults. In alignment with a patient-oriented research philosophy, this study will also ground future outcome selection in the priorities of older adults.

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Exploring the Influence of Match Fixing on Consumer Motivations to Watch Esports: Perspectives From Brand Producers

Michael L. Williamson, Kevin Filo, Jason Doyle, and Brooke Harris-Reeves

Existing challenges to the esports industry, such as match fixing, potentially affect consumer motivations to watch esports. Additionally, the esports literature examining consumer motivations to watch competitions relies on data gathered from consumers. An opportunity is presented to understand industry challenges alongside additional stakeholder perspectives on consumer motivations. The purpose is to explore the perceived influence of match fixing on consumer motivations to watch esports broadcasts, from the perspective of esports brand producers. Informed by uses and gratification theory, 30 semistructured interviews were conducted with brand producers in the Australian esports industry. Four themes were generated from thematic analysis: diminished integrity, decreased engagement, limited individual impact, and reduced drama. The findings provide insight for brand producers to craft strategic communications, which mitigate negative motivational influences and encourage consumers to watch esports. The current research extends the understanding of consumer motivations to watch esports by considering the perspective of brand producers.

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Association Between Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and the Dual-Task Performance Index in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Fabiane de Oliveira Brauner, Mariana Oliveira, Daiane Oliveira Hausen, Aniuska Schiavo, Gustavo Balbinot, and Régis Gemerasca Mestriner

The Performance Index (P-Index) is a measure for evaluating mobility-related dual-task performance in older adults. The identification of specific clinicodemographic factors predictive of P-Index scores, however, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 120 community-dwelling older adults (average age 71.3 ± 11.23 years) to explore clinicodemographic variables that influence P-Index scores during the instrumented timed up and go test. Unadjusted analyses suggested several factors, including age, gender, body mass index, Mini-Mental Status Examination scores, functional reach test performance, history of falls, ethnicity, Geriatric Depression Scale scores, alcohol consumption, and educational levels, as potential predictors of P-Index. However, adjusted multinomial multiple regression analysis revealed Geriatric Depression Scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination scores as the exclusive independent predictors of P-Index classifications, segmented into high, intermediate, or low (percentiles ≤ 25, 26–74, or ≥ 75, respectively). A significant association was observed between the manifestation of depressive symptoms, lower Mini-Mental Status Examination scores, and reduced cognitive–motor performance. The findings implicate depressive symptoms and low cognitive performance as substantial impediments to optimal dual-task mobility within this cohort. Further studies are warranted to examine the efficacy of cognitive stimulation and antidepressant therapy, in augmenting mobility-related dual-task performance among older adults.

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Follow the Arrows: Using a Co-Created Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Leverage Points to Strengthen Population Physical Activity Promotion in British Columbia, Canada

Lori Baugh Littlejohns, Geoffrey McKee, Drona Rasali, Daniel Naiman, Jennafer Mee, Tanya Osborne, Phuc Dang, Meghan Winters, Scott A. Lear, Diane Nelson, Steve McGinley, and Guy Faulkner

Background: Population physical activity promotion (PPAP) is one of the most effective noncommunicable disease prevention strategies, yet coordination is lacking around the world. Whole-of-system approaches and complex systems methods are called for to advance PPAP. This paper reports on a project which (1) used an Attributes Framework with system mapping (group model building and causal loop diagramming of feedback loops) and (2) identified potential leverage points to address the challenge of effective coordination of multisectoral PPAP in British Columbia. Methods: Key findings from stakeholder interviews and workshops described the current system for PPAP in terms of attributes and dimensions in the framework. These were translated into variables and used in group model building. Participants prioritized the importance of variables to address the coordination challenge and then created causal loop diagrams in 3 small groups. One collective causal loop diagram was created, and top priority variables and associated feedback loops were highlighted to explore potential leverage points. Results: Leverage points included the relationships and feedback loops among priority variables: political leadership, visible policy support and governance, connectivity for knowledge translation, collaborative multisector grants, multisector collaboration, and integrating co-benefits. Leveraging and altering “vicious” cyclical patterns to increase coordinated multisector PPAP are key. Conclusions: The Attributes Framework, group model building and causal loop diagrams, and emergent feedback loops were useful to explore potential leverage points to address the challenge of multisectoral coordination of PPAP. Future research could apply the same methods in other jurisdictions and compare and contrast resultant frameworks, variables, feedback loops, and leverage points.

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Investigating the Effect of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Adropin, Endothelial Function, Insulin Resistance, and Sleep Quality in Overweight Older Adults (a Link With Physiological Indexes and Sleep Quality): Results of a Randomized Controlled Study

Elham Ghasemi and Kazem Cheraghbirjandi

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of multicomponent training on adropin, endothelial function, insulin resistance, and sleep quality in overweight older adults. In this randomized controlled study, 40 overweight older adults were randomly divided into training and control groups. The multicomponent training program including aerobic, resistance, and balance exercise was followed for 8 weeks, 3 days a week. Study variables were measured 48 hr before and after the intervention. After 8 weeks of multicomponent training, adropin (p = .01), nitric oxide (p = .01), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max; p = .002) increased, and glucose (p = .001), insulin (p = .001), insulin resistance (p = .01), systolic blood pressure (p = .01), and sleep disorders (p = .01) decreased significantly. Also, Pearson’s test results showed a significant inverse relationship between adropin level (p = .01 and r = −.55) and glucose (p = .01 and r = −.51) with sleep disorders. It seems that multicomponent training increases adropin and improves insulin resistance, endothelial function, and sleep quality in older adults.