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Kerstin Bach, Atle Kongsvold, Hilde Bårdstu, Ellen Marie Bardal, Håkon S. Kjærnli, Sverre Herland, Aleksej Logacjov, and Paul Jarle Mork

Introduction: Accelerometer-based measurements of physical activity types are commonly used to replace self-reports. To advance the field, it is desirable that such measurements allow accurate detection of key daily physical activity types. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a machine learning classifier for detecting sitting, standing, lying, walking, running, and cycling based on a dual versus single accelerometer setups during free-living. Methods: Twenty-two adults (mean age [SD, range] 38.7 [14.4, 25–68] years) were wearing two Axivity AX3 accelerometers positioned on the low back and thigh along with a GoPro camera positioned on the chest to record lower body movements during free-living. The labeled videos were used as ground truth for training an eXtreme Gradient Boosting classifier using window lengths of 1, 3, and 5 s. Performance of the classifier was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Total recording time was ∼38 hr. Based on 5-s windowing, the overall accuracy was 96% for the dual accelerometer setup and 93% and 84% for the single thigh and back accelerometer setups, respectively. The decreased accuracy for the single accelerometer setup was due to a poor precision in detecting lying based on the thigh accelerometer recording (77%) and standing based on the back accelerometer recording (64%). Conclusion: Key daily physical activity types can be accurately detected during free-living based on dual accelerometer recording, using an eXtreme Gradient Boosting classifier. The overall accuracy decreases marginally when predictions are based on single thigh accelerometer recording, but detection of lying is poor.

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Logan T. Markwell, Andrew J. Strick, and Jared M. Porter

Sports, along with nearly all facets of life, have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Basketball Association quickly adopted a unique method to finish the 2019–2020 regular season and playoffs. The entire league quarantined for months in what was known as the “NBA bubble” where games were played in spectator-less arenas. During this time, increases in shooting accuracy were reported, suggesting that free throws and field goals were made at record-breaking levels. This study examined differences in free throw shooting accuracy with and without spectators. Archival data were retrieved and analyzed to evaluate the potential differences. Free throw shooting accuracy with and without spectators were examined in multiple analyses. Our examination revealed free throw percentages were significantly greater in spectator-less arenas compared with the 2018 and 2019 seasons with spectators. Changes of the environmental characteristics, due to spectator-less arenas, were likely contributors to the improved free throw phenomenon reported in this study.

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Alexandra Stribing, Adam Pennell, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Individuals with visual impairments (VI) trend toward lower motor competence when compared with peers without VI. Various forms of perception often affects motor competence. Thus, it is important to explore factors that influence forms of perception and their differential effects on motor competence for those with VI. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore and describe the differential effects of age, gender, and degree of vision on self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, metaperceptions, and locomotor skills, and to examine potential associations among all variables with actual locomotor competence for adolescents with VI. Adolescents with VI completed two questionnaires and the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition. Parents completed a parent perception questionnaire. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H analyses showed no differential effects for gender or age on any dependent measures. Degree of vision affected locomotor skills, but not any other factor. Spearman rho correlations showed significant associations among locomotor and self-perceptions, degree of vision and locomotor, and metaperceptions with parents’ perceptions. Adolescents reported relatively high self-perceptions and metaperceptions; however, their actual locomotor competence and parents’ perceptions were relatively low. Findings may help situate future intervention strategies targeting parents supporting their children’s locomotor skills through self-perceptions.

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Jennifer L. Gay and David M. Buchner

Introduction: Little is known about the stability of occupational physical activity (PA) and documented compensation effects over time. Study objectives were to (a) determine the stability of accelerometer estimates of occupational and nonoccupational PA over 6 months and 1 year in adults who do not change jobs, (b) examine PA stability in office workers relative to employees with nonoffice jobs who may be more susceptible to seasonal perturbations in work tasks, and (c) examine the stability data for compensation effects seen at baseline in this sample. Methods: City/county government workers from a variety of labor sectors wore an accelerometer at initial data collection, and at 6 (n = 98) and 12 months (n = 38) following initial data collection. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for accelerometer counts and minutes by intensity, domain, and office worker status. Partial correlation coefficients were examined for compensation effects. Results: ICCs ranged from .19 to .91 for occupational and nonwork activity variables. ICCs were similar by office worker status. In both counts and minutes, greater occupational PA correlated with lower total nonwork PA. However, as minutes of occupational moderate to vigorous physical activity increased, nonoccupational moderate to vigorous physical activity did not decrease. Conclusions: There was moderate to high stability in occupational and nonoccupational PA over 6- and 12-month data collection. Occupational PA stability was greater in nonoffice workers, suggesting that those employees’ PA may be less prone to potential cyclical factors at the workplace. Confirmation of the compensation effect further supports the need for workplace intervention studies to examine changes in all intensities of activity during and outside of work time.

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Paul Bernard Rukavina

The deleterious effects of weight bias in physical activity spaces for children, adolescents, and adults are well documented. Different types of weight bias occur, and they interact at multiple levels within a person’s ecology, from the messaging of often unattainable sociocultural thin/muscular ideals and physical inequities (e.g., equipment not appropriate for body shapes and sizes) to interpersonal and public discriminatory comments. However, the most damaging is the internalization and application of negative weight-bias stereotypes by those with overweight and obesity to themselves. An imperative for social justice is now; there is great need to advocate for, provide support for, and design inclusive physical activity spaces to reduce weight bias so that all individuals feel welcome, accept their bodies, and are empowered to live a healthy, active lifestyle. To make this a reality, an interdisciplinary and preventive approach is needed to understand bias and how to minimize it in our spaces.

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Jason Kostrna and Aaron D’Addario

The mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) protocol is designed to enhance mindfulness, emotional regulation, and attentional awareness and control. The MSPE consists of trainer led group sessions teaching the concepts of mindfulness through discussion and meditation practice. However, little research has tested the MSPE protocol’s adaptability and generalizability to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I teams and practitioners independent of the MSPE protocol’s creators. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of an adapted MSPE protocol. The adapted MSPE protocol was delivered to a NCAA Division I team while a second team participated as a potentially equivalent control group. Both teams completed measures of attentional control, flow, rumination, and mindful attention as primary outcome variables. Results revealed significant decreases in rumination and trait anxiety, as well as improvements in concentration control and focusing ability compared with the control group. Findings support the external validity of the MSPE protocol to adapt to independent practitioners and a previously unstudied combination of sport and level of competition.

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Norah L. Johnson, Abir K. Bekhet, Rachel Sawdy, Emily Zint, June Wang, Sylvia Pena, Hannah Zurcher, and Nina Enea

Background: The aims of this review were to describe exercise interventions, facilitators, and barriers to physical activity for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: A systematic review of the literature, appraising the validity of each article with Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt’s level of evidence, from different databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Science between 2000 and 2020 was conducted. As the initial search revealed no articles on exercise interventions and only 2 articles with children with autism spectrum disorder, the aim was widened to all parents of children. Results: Forty-five articles were identified on barriers to physical activity including being the primary caregiving parent, perception of guilt and selfishness, and adhering to exercise programs they do as part of research, once research ends. Facilitators for physical activity including parents being more likely to exercise if they can bring their child with them and parents preferring exercise that is a lifelong habit, such as walking. Conclusions: Due to the lack of research on parents of children with autism spectrum disorder, recommendations include development and testing of interventions for parents of children with this condition including family-based exercise interventions where children and parents have a choice to exercise together.

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NiCole R. Keith

Health equity will be achieved when all demographics have a fair opportunity be healthy. This essay describes the possibility of achieving health equity through physical activity. It presents the social ecological model of physical activity and describes how both microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors influence one’s ability to participate. There is then a description of watershed moments in American history that negatively influenced the ability of certain demographics to be active today. It then describes groups participating in less physical activity when compared to others. Several public health and political science models are then suggested with specific examples of how they have been implemented in the past to improve health or physical activity. The essay ends by describing the need to build the physical activity evidence among vulnerable populations that tend to be underrepresented in research and explains best practices in engaging these populations in investigative work.

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Alanna Weisberg, Hyun Suk Lee, Tak Fung, and Larry Katz

The overhand throw is a complex whole-body motor skill that is fundamental to many sports and activities. When throwing properly, the momentum generated to complete the movement begins in the lower body and transfers through the trunk to the throwing arm. This proof-of-concept study’s primary purpose was to evaluate the impact of the nonthrowing arm on the ball speed during an overhand throw with both the dominant and nondominant arms. Eighteen participants (age: 20.20 ± 2.90 years, nine women) were divided into two intervention groups: a pulling group taught to engage the nonthrowing arm through a pull toward the body and a nonpulling group taught the overhand throw using a component-based physical education curriculum. Each participant completed 12 total throws, six for each side (dominant and nondominant arm). Ball speed and kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system and were assessed using a pre–post study design. The two groups showed significant improvements pre–post when throwing with both the dominant and nondominant arms. Based on effect size comparisons, engaging the nonthrowing arm makes a meaningful difference in maximal ball velocity.