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Volume 17 (2023): Issue 4 (Dec 2023): JCSP Special Issue Burnout in Sport and Performance, Part 2

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The Effectiveness of a Sleep Optimization Program on Insomnia, Anxiety, Perceived Stress, and Emotion Dysregulation Among Football Players With Sleep Complaints

Kazem Emami, Shahram Nazari, Amy M. Bender, Rasool Norouzi Seyed Hossini, and Ebrahim Norouzi

Research has shown that elite athletes frequently experience both insufficient and poor-quality sleep. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of a sleep optimization intervention comprised of mindfulness and sleep hygiene on insomnia severity, symptoms of anxiety, stress, and emotion dysregulation among football players with sleep complaints. Sixty male football players with sleep complaints (mean age = 29.31, SD = 3.8) were randomly assigned to the active control condition (wellness program) or the sleep optimization intervention program (mindfulness plus sleep hygiene). All participants filled out questionnaires on insomnia severity, anxiety, perceived stress, and emotion dysregulation. Three data assessments were made: one at the start of the intervention (baseline), one at the end of the intervention 8 weeks later (posttest), and one 4 weeks after the posttest (follow-up). The severity of insomnia, anxiety, stress, and emotion dysregulation decreased over time in the sleep optimization group from baseline to posttest and at the follow-up. According to the present results, a sleep optimization intervention reduced insomnia, anxiety, stress symptoms, and emotion dysregulation in football players with sleep complaints.

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Trait Perfectionism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation, and Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Exercisers: A Structural Equation Modeling Strategy

Michael C. Grugan and Kieran J. Wright

Perfectionism is positively related to muscle dysmorphia (MD). However, research on this relationship is limited by conceptual and methodological issues (e.g., conceptualizing perfectionism as unidimensional, suboptimal analytical techniques, and failing to examine whether perfectionistic self-presentation is also related to MD). To address these issues, we used a structural equation modeling strategy to examine whether dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation add incrementally to the prediction of MD. A sample of 402 adult males who exercise regularly completed the study. We found that perfectionistic self-promotion, nondisplay of imperfection, and nondisclosure of imperfection accounted for significant increases in variance explained in MD (ΔR 2 = .126–.192). This means that clinicians and practitioners need to consider not only whether exercisers are motivated by a drive to be perfect (inherent in dimensions of trait perfectionism), but also whether they are motivated by a drive to appear perfect to others (inherent in dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation).

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Transition (From Sport) Experiences of Former National Football League Players: An NFL-LONG Study

J.D. DeFreese, Erianne A. Weight, Landon B. Lempke, Samuel R. Walton, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Benjamin L. Brett, Avinash Chandran, Rebekah Mannix, Ruben J. Echemendia, Michael A. McCrea, William P. Meehan III, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

Transition from professional football life has important implications for the health and well-being of former National Football League (NFL) players. The study purpose was to examine former NFL players’ experiences of transitioning from sport including factors that helped and factors that made transition difficult. This study used a convenience sample of former NFL players drawn from a larger study of health and function. Participants included 1,784 former NFL players, mean age = 52.3 ± 16.3 years, 59% White, and a discontinuation mean of 24.0 ± 15.6 years after leaving the league. Participants responded to open-ended transition questions via mail or electronic questionnaire with responses analyzed using conceptual content analysis. The most frequently reported factors that helped transition included career transition plan/options (48%) and social support (40%). Whereas, structure- (33%) and identity-related (23%) difficulties were reported as factors that made transition difficult. Findings identify areas for targeted interventions to enhance NFL player well-being during transition from sport.

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Nonaccidental Violence Among Elite Athletes in Finland: Associations With Sport Conditions and Mental Well-Being and Ill-Being

Satu Kaski and Ulla Kinnunen

The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of nonaccidental violence among elite athletes in Finland, the predisposing factors to violence, and its consequences for mental well-being and ill-being. A total of 2,045 Finnish athletes participated in the study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to analyze the associations. The results indicated that 38.8% had experienced psychological abuse, 14.7% bullying, 13.3% gender-based harassment, and 5.5% sexual harassment. Female and younger athletes reported more violent experiences than male and older athletes. A team’s safe atmosphere and readiness to act protected athletes from nonaccidental violence, whereas the coach did not play a role. Nonaccidental violence, particularly psychological abuse, was associated with reduced mental well-being and increased ill-being. Our results suggest that it is worth investing in the team’s mutual relationships and safe cooperation when ensuring appropriate behavior and preventing nonaccidental violence among athletes.

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Erratum. Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

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Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport

Tanya Fozzard and Dara Mojtahedi

Respect and fair treatment among competitors are necessary for maintaining quality and enjoyment in sporting competitions. Yet despite the existence of rules and expectations, many athletes choose to violate such sporting norms. The present study examined whether individual differences in Sportspersonship within recreational sports could be explained by personality and sport-related attitudes. Ultimate Frisbee players (N = 828) completed an online survey consisting of personality (dark triad, HEXACO-60, and Sportspersonship), demographic, and attitudinal questionnaires. Psychopathy was associated with low Sportspersonship, whereas Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Openness to Experience predicted greater Sportspersonship. Additionally, participants holding positive attitudes about the conduct of other players and the efficacy of self-governed regulation displayed higher Sportspersonship. Positive associations between personality traits and Sportspersonship may be attributed to positive views toward cooperation and enjoyment of the experience, whereas negative associations between Psychopathy and Sportspersonship are likely to be linked to the callous and risk-taking nature of such individuals.

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Stressors and Expected Performance of Soccer Athletes: The Role of Sport Confidence and Cognitive Appraisal

Catarina Morais, Clara Simães, A. Rui Gomes, and Beatriz M. Gonçalves

This study aimed to provide a framework for how athletes evaluate stress before a competition and how stress relates to cognitive appraisal, sport confidence, and expectations of performance. Participants were 327 youth male athletes, aged 15–19 years (M = 16.90; SD = 1.00), who competed in the Portuguese National Football League and completed a questionnaire 24–48 hr before their match, using the critical incident methodology. Results revealed that opponents were the main source of stress for athletes and that the more athletes stress about their opponents, the more they tend to perceive the situation as threatening (and less challenging), the lower their perceptions of coping and sport confidence which, in turn, predicted lower expectations of individual and collective performance. In sum, perceiving the stressful situation as either a challenge or a threat predicts young athletes’ sport confidence and, consequently, expected performance when dealing with stressful competitive situations.

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Shooting Free Throws Under Pressure: A Social Media Self-Talk Intervention

Sabrina Gomez Souffront, Angeliki M. Mavrantza, and Marcelo Bigliassi

The present study sought to investigate the effects of a self-talk intervention on free-throw performance under pressure. The experimental manipulation was designed using a video from a social media platform. Thirty male college basketball players were randomly assigned into two groups (i.e., control and experimental). The experimental protocol incorporated three trials of three free throws each. Psychophysiological stress was assessed by use of heart rate variability. The illusion of pressure was created using arena recordings of large crowds along with instructions for participants to visualize a high-pressure scenario. The results indicate that the self-talk intervention was sufficient to improve free throw shooting accuracy during the postintervention phase. Short-term heart rate variability reduced significantly for the control group and remained relatively stable for the experimental group. Self-talk appears to influence free throw accuracy during situations of psychosocial stress by inhibiting the influence of negative thoughts on peripheral physiological reactions and movement automaticity.

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Eras of Burnout Research: What Does the Past Tell Us About the Future of Burnout in Sport?

J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson