Purpose: To investigate the indirect measurement of 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) free-weight half-squat in high-level sprinters using the load–velocity relationship. Methods: Half-squat load and velocity data from 11 elite sprinters were collected in 2 separate testing sessions. Approximately 24 hours prior to the first testing session, sprinters completed a fatiguing high-intensity training session consisting of running intervals, staircase exercises, and body-weight exercises. Prior to the second testing session, sprinters had rested at least 48 hours. Two different prediction models (multiple-point method, 2-point method) were used to estimate 1RM based on the load and either mean or peak concentric velocity data of submaximal lifts (40%–90% 1RM). The criterion validity of all methods was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients, coefficient of variation (CV%), Bland–Altman plots, and the SEM. Results: None of the estimations were significantly different from the actual 1RM. The multiple-point method showed higher intraclass correlation coefficients (.91 to .97), with CVs from 3.6% to 11.7% and SEMs from 5.4% to 10.6%. The 2-point method showed slightly lower intraclass correlation coefficients (.76 to .95), with CVs 1.4% to 17.5% and SEMs from 9.8% to 26.1%. Bland–Altman plots revealed a mean random bias in estimation of 1RM for both methods (mean and peak velocity) ranging from 1.06 to 13.79 kg. Conclusion: Velocity-based methods can be used to roughly estimate 1RM in elite sprinters in the rested and fatigued conditions. However, all methods showed variations that limit their applicability for accurate load prescription for individual athletes.
Rasmus B. Kjær, Jon H. Herskind, Mathias V. Kristiansen, and Lars G. Hvid
Oscar B. Mazza, Søren Gam, Mikkel E.I. Kolind, Christian Kiær, Christina Donstrup, and Kurt Jensen
Background: Laboratory assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (
Thomas W. Jones, Hampus P. Lindblom, Marko S. Laaksonen, and Kerry McGawley
Purpose: To determine whether competitive performance, as defined by International Biathlon Union (IBU) and International Ski Federation (FIS) points in biathlon and cross-country (XC) skiing, respectively, can be projected using a combination of anthropometric and physiological metrics. Shooting accuracy was also included in the biathlon models. Methods: Data were analyzed using multivariate methods from 45 (23 female and 22 male) biathletes and 202 (86 female and 116 male) XC skiers who were all members of senior national teams, national development teams, or ski-university or high school invite-only programs (age range: 16–36 y). Anthropometric and physiological characteristics were assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and incremental roller-ski treadmill tests, respectively. Shooting accuracy was assessed via an outdoor standardized testing protocol. Results: Valid projective models were identified for female biathletes’ IBU points (R 2 = .80/Q 2 = .65) and female XC skiers’ FIS distance (R 2 = .81/Q 2 = .74) and sprint (R 2 = .81/Q 2 = .70) points. No valid models were identified for the men. The most important variables for the projection of IBU points were shooting accuracy, speeds at blood lactate concentrations of 4 and 2 mmol·L−1, peak aerobic power, and lean mass. The most important variables for the projection of FIS distance and sprint points were speeds at blood lactate concentrations of 4 and 2 mmol·L−1 and peak aerobic power. Conclusions: This study highlights the relative importance of specific anthropometric, physiological, and shooting-accuracy metrics in female biathletes and XC skiers. The data can help to identify the specific metrics that should be targeted when monitoring athletes’ progression and designing training plans.
Natalia Galan-Lopez, Chris J. Esh, Diogo Vaz Leal, Silvia Gandini, Ronan Lucas, Frederic Garrandes, Stephane Bermon, Paolo Emilio Adami, Alma Kajeniene, Yuri Hosokawa, Bryna Catherine Rose Chrismas, Christopher J. Stevens, and Lee Taylor
Purpose: To assess elite racewalkers’ preparation strategies, knowledge, and general practices for competition in the heat and their health status during the World Athletics Race Walking Teams Championships (WRW) Muscat 2022. Methods: Sixty-six elite racewalkers (male: n = 42; mean age = 25.8 y) completed an online survey prior to WRW Muscat 2022. Athletes were grouped by sex (males vs females) and climate (self-reported) they live/trained in (hot vs temperate/cold), with differences/relationships between groups assessed. Relationships between ranking (medalist/top 10 vs nonmedalist/nontop 10) and precompetition use of heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA) were assessed. Results: All surveyed medalists (n = 4) implemented, and top 10 finishers were more likely to report using (P = .049; OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.06%–1%), HA before the championships. Forty-three percent of athletes did not complete specific HA training. Females (8% [males 31%]) were less likely to have measured core temperature (P = .049; OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.041–0.99) and more likely to not know expected conditions in Muscat (42% vs 14%; P = .016; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 1%–14%) or what wet bulb globe temperature is (83% vs 55%; P = .024; OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1%–14%). Conclusions: Athletes who implemented HA before the championships tended to place better than those who did not. Forty-three percent of athletes did not prepare for the expected hot conditions at the WRW Muscat 2022, primarily attributed to challenges in accessing and/or cost of equipment/facilities for HA strategies. Further efforts to bridge the gap between research and practice in this elite sport are needed, particularly in female athletes.
Ibrahim Ouergui, Slaheddine Delleli, Hamdi Messaoudi, Craig Alan Bridge, Hamdi Chtourou, Emerson Franchini, and Luca Paolo Ardigò
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of 4 weeks of repeated sprint training (RST) versus repeated high-intensity technique training (RTT) on the physiological responses (ie, blood lactate), mean and peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, technical–tactical performance, and time–motion variables during simulated taekwondo combats. Methods: Twenty-four taekwondo athletes (18 male and 6 female; age: 16  y) were randomly and equally assigned to RST (10 × 35-m running sprints interspersed by 10-s rest) or RTT (10 × 6-s bandal-tchagui kicking executions interspersed by 10-s rest) groups in addition to their regular training. Both groups performed simulated combats before and after training. Results: Delta lactate and peak heart rate were attenuated following training (P < .001 and P = .03, respectively), with no differences identified between RTT and RST conditions. Rating of perceived exertion decreased after training only in the RTT (P = .002). Time fighting and preparatory activities increased following training (P < .001), with higher values observed following RTT than RST (P < .001). Nonpreparatory time decreased after training (P < .001), with more pronounced reductions observed following RTT when compared to RST (P < .001). The number of single attacks decreased only following RST (P < .001), whereas combined attacks increased only after RTT training (P < .001). Conclusions: Similar adjustments in the physiological responses to combat were observed following 4 weeks of either RST or RTT, but RTT elicited more favorable perceptual responses and combat-related performance. This highlights the importance of specificity of training and its effective transfer to combat.
Jorge E. Morais, Tiago M. Barbosa, José A. Bragada, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, and Daniel A. Marinho
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of kinematic, kinetic, and energetic variables as speed predictors in adolescent swimmers in the front-crawl stroke. Design: Ten boys (mean age [SD] = 16.4 [0.7] y) and 13 girls (mean age [SD] = 14.9 [0.9] y) were assessed. Methods: The swimming performance indicator was a 25-m sprint. A set of kinematic, kinetic (hydrodynamic and propulsion), and energetic variables was established as a key predictor of swimming performance. Multilevel software was used to model the maximum swimming speed. Results: The final model identified time (estimate = −0.008, P = .044), stroke frequency (estimate = 0.718, P < .001), active drag coefficient (estimate = −0.330, P = .004), lactate concentration (estimate = 0.019, P < .001), and critical speed (estimate = −0.150, P = .035) as significant predictors. Therefore, the interaction of kinematic, hydrodynamic, and energetic variables seems to be the main predictor of speed in adolescent swimmers. Conclusions: Coaches and practitioners should be aware that improvements in isolated variables may not translate into faster swimming speed. A multilevel evaluation may be required for a more effective assessment of the prediction of swimming speed based on several key variables rather than a single analysis.
Alannah K.A. McKay, Megan L.R. Ross, Nicolin Tee, Avish P. Sharma, Jill J. Leckey, and Louise M. Burke
Purpose: To examine the effects of a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHO), periodized-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (PCHO), and ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF) on training capacity. Methods: Elite male racewalkers completed 3 weeks of periodic training while adhering to their dietary intervention. Twenty-nine data sets were collected from 21 athletes. Each week, 6 mandatory training sessions were completed, with additional sessions performed at the athlete’s discretion. Mandatory sessions included an interval session (10 × 1-km efforts on a 6-min cycle), tempo session (14 km with a 450-m elevation gain), 2 long walks (25–40 km), and 2 easy walks (8–12 km) where “sleep-low” and “train-low” dietary strategies were employed for PCHO. Racewalking speed, heart rate, rating of perceived exhaustion, and blood metabolites were collected around key sessions. Results: LCHF covered less total distance than HCHO and PCHO (P < .001); however, no differences in training load between groups were evident (P = .285). During the interval sessions, walking speed was slower in LCHF (P = .001), equating to a 2.8% and 5.6% faster speed in HCHO and PCHO, respectively. LCHF was also 3.2% slower in completing the tempo session than HCHO and PCHO (P = .001). Heart rate was higher (P = .002) and lactate concentrations were lower (P < .001) in LCHF compared to other groups, despite slower walking speeds during the interval session. No between-groups differences in rating of perceived exhaustion were evident (P = .077). Conclusion: Athletes adhering to an LCHF diet showed impaired training capacity relative to their high-CHO-supported counterparts, completing lower training volumes at slower speeds, with higher heart rates.
Connor J.M. Holdback, Rony Ibrahim, David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw, and Richard M. Kelso
This research provides a review of seated shot put alongside new data from the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games with the aim to understand the latest trends in equipment within a recently established rule set and how key equipment variables may impact performance for athletes in different classifications. First, a review of the literature found that the throwing pole is a key equipment aid that is not well understood, in part due to limitations in testing design. New data from the 2020 Paralympic Games showed inconsistent trends for the use of the throwing pole among athletes, particularly in transitionary classes (F33–34 and F54–55). A two-way analysis of variance found a main effect of classification on performance (p < .001), as well as an interaction effect between pole use and classification on performance (p < .05). Notably, pole users are seen to perform better than non–pole users in Class F32 (p < .05).
Matthias Hovorka, Peter Leo, Dieter Simon, Clemens Rumpl, and Alfred Nimmerichter
Purpose: The purpose of the current investigation was to retrospectively assess possible differences in physiological performance characteristics between junior cyclists signing a contract with an under-23 (U23) development team versus those failing to sign such a contract. Methods: Twenty-five male junior cyclists (age: 18.1 [0.7] y, stature: 181.9 [6.0] cm, body mass: 69.1 [7.9] kg, peak oxygen uptake: 71.3 [6.2] mL·min−1·kg−1) were assigned to this investigation. Between September and October of the last year in the junior category, each cyclist performed a ramp incremental exercise test to determine certain physiological performance characteristics. Subsequently, participants were divided in 2 groups: (1) those signing a contract with a U23 development team (JUNIORU23) and (2) those failing to sign such a contract (JUNIORNON-U23). Unpaired t tests were used to assess possible between-groups differences in physiological performance characteristics. The level of statistical significance was set at P < .05 two tailed. Results: No significant between-groups differences in submaximal (ie, gas exchange threshold, respiratory compensation point) and maximal physiological performance characteristics (ie, peak work rate, peak oxygen uptake) expressed in absolute values (ie, L·min−1, W) were observed (P > .05). However, significant between-groups differences were observed when physiological performance characteristics were expressed relative to the cyclists’ body weights (P < .05). Conclusions: The current investigation showed that junior cyclists stepping up to a U23 development team might be retrospectively differentiated from junior cyclists not stepping up based on certain physiological performance characteristics, which might inform practitioners and/or federations working with young cyclists during the long-term athletic development process.