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Erratum. Do Fundamental Movement Skill Domains in Early Childhood Predict Engagement in Physical Activity of Varied Intensities Later at School Age? A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

Journal of Motor Learning and Development

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Volume 11 (2023): Issue 3 (Dec 2023)

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Correlates of Fundamental Motor Skills in the Early Years (0–4 Years): A Systematic Review

Sanne L.C. Veldman, Jessica S. Gubbels, Amika S. Singh, Johan M. Koedijker, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, and Teatske M. Altenburg

Aim: This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on correlates of fundamental motor skills in typically developing children aged 0–4 years. Methods: A literature search (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) was performed from 2000 till 23 May 2022. Inclusion criteria was cross-sectional and prospective studies examining associations between a potential correlate and fundamental motor skills in typically developing, apparently healthy children aged 0–4 years. Two independent reviewers performed screening and methodological quality assessment. Results: Eighty-three studies met eligibility criteria and were included. Thirteen studies were of high methodological quality. In children aged <1 year, we found no evidence for family income, breastfeeding-related, sleep-related, home environment, and socioeconomic variables. In children aged 1–2 years, we found no evidence for sex, growth-related variables, singleton birth, and family income. In children aged 2–4 years, we found no evidence for screen behavior, toxicity, parental education, family income, socioeconomic variables, and maternal depression/anxiety and moderate evidence for a positive association with early childhood education and care setting type. For other examined correlates, we found insufficient evidence (inconsistent findings or only one study available). Conclusions: We found insufficient evidence for over half of examined potential correlates of fundamental motor skills. We recommend investing in better research methodologies and improved reporting.

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Age Differences in a Combined Walking and Grasping Task

Andrea H. Mason, Alejandra S. Padilla, and Kristen A. Pickett

Previous studies have identified patterns of coordinated control when adults combine gait and grasping. What remains unclear is whether the coordination of these two tasks differs between adolescent and adult groups. Groups of adults and adolescents were asked to walk across an instrumented gait mat in three conditions: walk forward, walk and grasp a small target, and walk and grasp a large target. Spatiotemporal measures of gait/gait variability and grasp/grasp variability were quantified. Both adolescents and young adults exhibited decreased velocity, decreased step-extremity ratio, and increased percent of gait cycle spent in double support when grasping compared to walking alone. The major influence of grasping was seen during the final step before grasp in both groups. Change scores between walk forward and walk and grasp conditions were larger for adolescents. Furthermore, spatiotemporal measures of gait and grasping were more variable in adolescents. These results suggest that superimposing grasp onto gait is more challenging for adolescents than young adults. The challenges associated with combining these two tasks is particularly evident in the last step prior to object contact and suggests that the increased planning and execution demands required to perform these coordinated skills affects adolescents to a greater extent than young adults.

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Dynamic Lower Limb Alignment During Jumping in Preschool Children: Normative Profiles and Sex Differences

Steen Harsted, Lise Hestbæk, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen, and Henrik Hein Lauridsen

The natural development of static lower limb varus/valgus alignments during early childhood is well understood. However, our understanding of dynamic lower limb frontal plane alignments is limited, and we lack normative descriptions of this phenomenon for both boys and girls. This study investigated dynamic lower limb alignment during jump-landings in preschool children, focusing on associations with sex, age, and motor performance. Dynamic lower limb alignment was measured as the Knee-to-Ankle Separation Ratio (KASR) in 605 children aged 3–6 years using markerless motion capture. Based on KASR measurements, we categorized the children into three kinematic groups: Valgus, Intermediate, and Varus. Median KASR scores were 0.86 (0.80–0.96) overall, 0.89 (0.81–0.98) for boys, and 0.85 (0.78–0.92) for girls. Over 75% of the children exhibited some level of dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings (KASR < 1). However, roughly two-thirds of the children in the Valgus group were girls. Age-adjusted differences in motor performance were small and only statistically significant for jump height and length in girls. These findings suggest that dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings is a common occurrence in preschool children, especially among girls. The potential relationship between dynamic lower limb alignment and age and motor performance warrants further investigation.

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The Effects of Spectators on National Basketball Association Free Throw Performance

Logan T. Markwell, Harjiv Singh, Andrew J. Strick, and Jared M. Porter

Free throw shooting percentage has averaged around 75% for nearly five decades. However, free throw percentages significantly increased to 79% during the 2020 spectator-less National Basketball Association season. The current study investigated if the elevated free throw shooting percentage observed during the spectator-less season has returned to the 50-year average now that spectators have returned to National Basketball Association arenas. Moreover, home and away free throw percentages were examined to determine if a potential home-field advantage contributed to this phenomenon. Analyses revealed that the free throw shooting percentage from the spectator-less season was significantly higher than the two spectator-filled seasons preceding and following the spectator-less season. Furthermore, the analyses found no differences in free throw percentages between home and away games. While the free throw shooting percentage increased to 79% during the spectator-less season, the free throw shooting percentage returned to the 50-year average (i.e., ∼75%), following the spectator-less season. Additionally, it does not appear that a perceived home-field advantage influenced the increased free throw performance observed in the spectator-less season. Multiple factors likely contributed to this free throw phenomenon, including the environmental characteristics shaped by the lack of spectators.

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The Move2Smile Online Hub for Parents to Support Aspects of Preschoolers’ Physical Literacy at Home: A Feasibility Study

Maeghan E. James, John Cairney, Nikoleta Odorico, Tracia Finlay-Watson, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

This study aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a web-based platform for parents to support preschoolers’ development of physical literacy. Specifically, this intervention focused on children’s motor and social-emotional skill development. Twenty parents (M age = 35.7, SD = 4.2) of preschool-aged children (M age = 4.1, SD = 0.6) were assigned three intervention modules and completed weekly usage and feedback questionnaires (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Parents (n = 15) also completed a follow-up interview. Parents indicated the modules were useable (4.5/5), useful (4.5/5), feasible (4.4/5), enjoyable (4.5/5), and acceptable (4.5/5). Five themes underlying parental engagement were generated: (a) activity organization and planning, (b) (de)motivators, (c) parent knowledge and skills, (d) experience with the platform, and (e) application to everyday routines. The online modules under investigation were deemed both acceptable and feasible by parents. However, factors such as time and knowledge may impact parental engagement at home. Future research is needed to better understand the antecedents to parent physical literacy support behaviors in the early years.

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The Path to Translating Focus of Attention Research Into Canadian Physiotherapy, Part 4: Sequentially Linking Assessment Outcomes Into a Chain of Evidence Supporting the Workshop

Julia Hussien, Liza Khodko, Cooper Macdonald, and Diane Ste-Marie

In previous research, Canadian physiotherapists identified barriers to effective external focus promotion and recommended the delivery of a focus of attention workshop as a solution. Accordingly, the current research entailed the virtual delivery of such a workshop, consisting of asynchronous Website modules followed by a synchronous group session, to 15 Canadian physiotherapists working mainly with musculoskeletal rehabilitation clients. Assessment of the workshop outcomes was guided by constructs of social cognitive and adult learning theory, and organized based on the four levels of the Kirkpatrick model (KP1-Reaction, KP2-Learning, KP3-Behavior, and KP4-Results). Specifically, participants received links to questionnaire packages at three time points: 1-week preworkshop, immediately postworkshop, and 1-week postworkshop. Results showed that participants (a) reported high satisfaction, engagement, and perceived relevance of the workshop (KP1); (b) experienced significant improvements to their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-efficacy from pre- to immediately postworkshop (KP2); and (c) self-reported increases to their external focus promotion in the week following the workshop (modified KP3), and perceived improvements to their clients’ outcomes as a result of this external focus encouragement (modified KP4). Taken together, these results serve as a chain of evidence supporting the usefulness of the workshop in translating focus of attention findings into Canadian physiotherapy.

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An Examination of Bilateral Skill Proficiency and Frequency of Pass in Selected and Nonselected Youth Academy Gaelic Footballers

Kevin J. Murray, Con Burns, Sean Lacey, Cian O’ Neill, and Edward K. Coughlan

This study examined differences in bilateral skill proficiency and frequency of use between selected and nonselected under-17 male intercounty academy Gaelic footballers. Participants (N = 82, mean age = 15.54 years, SD = 0.27) were retrospectively grouped as selected (n = 19) and nonselected (n = 63) for the final squad. A discrete skills test evaluated bilateral hand pass and kick pass proficiency. Within-academy matches (N = 8) were recorded to analyze in-game bilateral passing proficiency and frequency (N = 3,109). Selected players were more proficient in both nondominant kick pass (p = .001) and nondominant hand pass (p = .007) in the discrete skills test and nondominant hand pass (p = .002) in match play. Nonselected players used the dominant hand pass (p = .037) significantly more than selected players in match play. The strongest predictors of selection were the nondominant kick pass and nondominant hand pass in the skills test, and successful dominant kick pass and successful nondominant hand pass in match play (p < .05), with 89% of players correctly classified. The findings suggest that higher bilateral proficiency scores provide greater opportunities to be selected.

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Impact of an Online Rater Training on Scoring Accuracy of Two Skills on the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 Among Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Pilot Study

Hyokju Maeng, Deborah R. Shapiro, Elizabeth Kipling Webster, and Hyunjin Kwon

Rater training is necessary to accurately evaluate fundamental motor skills among children with developmental disabilities (DD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of an online rater training program for novice raters on scoring accuracy of the run and two-hand strike skills on the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition (TGMD-3) among children with DD. A training program was created consisting of two units/modules. The first module introduced the TGMD-3 and the second outlined behavior, movement characteristics, and correct scoring for the run and two-hand strike for children with DD. Forty-one novice raters completed three rounds of training and scoring. Data analysis compared the change of rating accuracy of novice raters on the run and two-hand strike skills of the TGMD-3 across three different occasions. There was a statistically significant positive impact on the scoring accuracy of novice raters for the run, two-hand strike skills, and the total skill score (p < .001). The TGMD-3 online rater training program for novices in the present study could provide a model training program to improve the accuracy of scoring fundamental motor skills among children with DD.