In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.
The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport
Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson
Player Perceptions of Face Validity and Fidelity in 360-Video and Virtual Reality Cricket
Oliver R. Runswick
Virtual reality (VR) and 360° video can provide new opportunities for testing and training in sport. Both options offer different benefits in terms of efficacy for training, ease of use, and cost. This creates questions about the implementation of immersive technologies, and research is required to further understand their use. We aimed to gain initial evidence of athletes’ perceptions of face validity and fidelity in VR and 360-video. Thirty-nine international pathway cricketers experienced five overs in VR cricket and in a 360-video recording. After trying each technology, players completed questionnaires to measure perceptions of presence and task workload. Participants reported immersive experience in both methods, but higher levels of realism, possibility to act, physical effort, temporal constraints, and task control in VR. 360-video offers a better possibility to visually examine the environment, while VR offers enhanced realism and physical elements, but 360-video may still offer affordable solutions for visual tasks.
Temporal Sequencing of Naturalistic Associations Between Body Satisfaction and Physical Activity: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Among Women in Midlife With Elevated Cardiovascular Risk
Kelly A. Romano, Kristin E. Heron, and Danielle Arigo
The goal of the present study was to examine naturalistic associations between body satisfaction and physical activity (PA) among women in midlife. Women 40–60 years of age with cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension; N = 75; M age = 51.63) responded to five surveys per day for 10 days while accelerometer-derived PA measurements were collected continuously. PA parameters included cognitive determinants (PA motivation and intentions) and accelerometer-measured PA behavior (sedentary behavior, light-intensity PA, and moderate to vigorous PA). Multilevel models indicated that associations between body satisfaction and everyday PA differed across PA determinants, time frames (concurrent and prospective), and levels (momentary, daily, and person). For example, positive bidirectional associations were identified between women’s daily body satisfaction and PA motivation, whereas greater momentary light-intensity PA (but not moderate to vigorous PA) was unidirectionally associated with greater body satisfaction at a subsequent prompt. These findings provide insight into how associations between body satisfaction and PA unfold in the daily lives of women in midlife and highlight the complexities of these associations.
Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork
In Memoriam: Daniel M. Landers 1942–2023
Deborah L. Feltz, Bradley Hatfield, and Jennifer L. Etnier
Volume 45 (2023): Issue 5 (Oct 2023)
Comparisons and Conversions: A Methodological Note and Caution for Meta-Analysis in Sport and Exercise Psychology
Andrew P. Hill
Meta-analysis is a powerful tool in sport and exercise psychology. However, it has a number of pitfalls, and some lead to ill-advised comparisons and overestimation of effects. The impetus for this research note is provided by a recent systematic review of meta-analyses that examined the correlates of sport performance and has fallen foul of some of the pitfalls. Although the systematic review potentially has great value for researchers and practitioners alike, it treats effects from correlational and intervention studies as yielding equivalent information, double-counts multiple studies, and uses an effect size for correlational studies (Cohen’s d) that provides an extreme contrast of unclear practical relevance. These issues impact interpretability, bias, and usefulness of the findings. This methodological note explains each pitfall and illustrates use of an appropriate equivalent effect size for correlational studies (Mathur and VanderWeele’s d) to help researchers avoid similar issues in future work.
Social Supports and Barriers for Older Adults Not Participating in Group Physical Activity
Lindsay Morrison, Meghan H. McDonough, Jennifer Hewson, Ann Toohey, Cari Din, and Sarah J. Kenny
Group physical activity can provide physical and social benefits; however, social barriers or a lack of social support may affect participation. This study examined social-support needs and barriers among older adults who were not participating in group physical activities. Using interpretive description, semistructured interviews were conducted with 38 older adults (M = 70.9 years; 81.6% women). Themes were grouped into two categories. Category 1, expectations and initial impressions, consisted of the following: (a) Groups cannot meet everyone’s expectations or interests, (b) groups are intimidating to join, and (c) the need for inclusive programming. Category 2, social processes within group physical activity, consisted of (a) modeling physical activity behaviors, (b) sharing information and suggestions about physical activity opportunities, and (c) encouragement and genuine interest. Outreach to this population should aim to address these barriers and utilize these supportive behaviors to reduce feelings of intimidation and promote participation among older adults.
Teachers’ Verbal and Nonverbal Communication, Students’ Psychological Needs, and Positive and Negative Outcomes in Physical Education
Héctor Moreno-Casado, Francisco M. Leo, Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Tomás García-Calvo, and Juan J. Pulido
Focused on physical education (PE), this study examined the association between teachers’ communication and students’ psychological needs, enjoyment/boredom, PE usefulness, and students’ grade perception. Participants were 1,000 students (572 girls; M age = 14.58 ± 0.65) from 29 Spanish secondary schools. A path model including variables measured at three times was tested: teachers’ verbal/nonverbal communication (Time 1), needs satisfaction/frustration (Time 2), and PE outcomes (Time 3). Verbal communication positively predicted needs satisfaction, which, in turn, positively predicted enjoyment, PE usefulness, and students’ grade perception and negatively predicted boredom. Verbal communication negatively predicted needs frustration, which was a positive predictor of boredom. Multigroup analysis showed that gender did not moderate the associations in the path model, whereas mediating effects were found between teachers’ communication and consequences via students’ psychological needs. Teachers should improve their communicative capacities to satisfy students’ psychological needs and promote positive PE outcomes.